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As provided by the high flexibility of the apatite structure a great variety of cationic and anionic species can be substituted into HA structure specifically considered as an effective method to modify the properties of HA [4]. This processing resulted in the formation of NaCaPO4 rhenanite interphase on hydroxyapatite.

The NaCaPO4 exhibits also high biocompatibility and bioactivity. Results show that various microstructurally controlled hydroxyapatite-based composites with NaCaPO4 interphase can be prepared as potentially improved reliable and high biocompatibile material.

To understand antibacterial properties of the structure, the antibacterial sensitivity has been tested with E. Coli Gram- negative bacteria. The radius of area which encloses the samples shows the region of non-bacterial environment.

The radius increases with Ag ratio. With increasing Ag ratio the resistance to bacteria activity increases. The longitudinal surface plasmon bands of the gold nanorods responded to the M angiotensin solution that was cast on the ITO plate. The ITO plate, which was modified with gold nanorods, was found to be effective in collecting angiotensin molecules adjacent to the gold nanorods, and the SALDI processes that were induced by the photoabsorption of the gold nanorods efficiently contributed the desorption and ionization of the angiotensin.

Chitosan using as the vector in gene therapy shows good biocompatibility and has been increasingly proposed as safer alternatives to viral vector, but poor solubility and low transfection efficiency limit its end-use applications. A novel chitosan derivative, imidazole-chitosan ICS were synthesized and characterized, for the purpose of gene delivery. Therefore, the ICS is recommended as one of the promising candidate as the vector in gene therapy due to its good biodegradability, enhanced solubility in physiological pH, strong gene binding ability, low cytotoxicity, and competitive high cell transfection efficiency.

The majority of current cell microarray technologies are based on culturing a lawn of cells on a substrate printed with spots of a chemical library. Although this enables cell screening in a high throughput and miniaturized manner, these cell microarrays require large spot-to-spot distances to reduce both cross-contamination of the spotted solutions and cell migration between the spots.

Furthermore, the large spot-to-spot distances limit the achievable spot density of cell microarrays. We present a method to overcome these limitations by polymerizing a thin, nanoporous layer of superhydrophilic polymer, poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate , on a substrate and using the surface modification technique of UV-initiated photografting and a photomask to pattern superhydrophobic barriers.

Precise control over the size and geometry of the superhydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterns is achievable based on the photomask design. We observed cell proliferation and migration on patterned substrates using several commonly used cell lines. The cells preferentially adhered and proliferated in the superhydrophilic microspots. In addition, the superhydrophobic barriers proved highly efficient at preventing cell migration between the microspots and provided watertight barriers to contain solution printed in a single microspot.

To test the application of our cell microarray, we printed plasmid DNA containing a fluorescent reporter and transfection reagents on our substrate and reversely transfected HEK cells. We observed efficient reporter expression in the HEK cells. An additional advantage of our patterned substrates is the transparency of the nanoporous superhydrophilic polymer, which makes inverted microscopy possible. Our technology demonstrates a simple and quick method for fabricating cell microarrays and cell patterning substrates and provides an affordable and convenient biological tool.

In-situ guidance of neuronal processes neurites is demonstrated by applying wet femtosecond fs -laser processing to an organosilane self-assembled monolayer SAM template. The SAM template for arraying primary neurons was prepared by patterning with electron-beam lithography aminosilane and octadecylsilane SAMs on a glass substrate, which form cytophilic and cytophobic regions, respectively.

Primary neuron was obtained from embryonic chick forebrain and was cultured on the SAM template for two days. The neurons adhered selectively on the circular pattern, frequently one cell per circle, and elongated neurites along the lines. Focused fs-laser beam fs, nm, 0. This guidance was accomplished by multiphoton laser ablation of octadecylsilane and subsequent adsorption of cell adhesion molecule, laminin, onto the ablated region.

The in-situ guidance technique presented here will enables us to design neuronal networks in vitro with controlled polarity, cell type, and synaptic site. This implies that stratum corneum layer was partly ablated by a photothermal effect of gold nanorods that had been applied to the skin. In this study, we tried to deliver insulin using this transdermal protein delivery system.

A Significantly larger amount of insulin penetrated through the skin than that of the control case without the gold nanorods or the light irradiation. We next examined a reduction of blood glucose level in mice. This approach controlled by light irradiation will be functional tools for transdermal protein delivery.

Titanium and its alloys have been used widely as biomaterials for orthopaedic implants because of their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Bone is known to bond to the surface of Ti alloys. This can lead to re-fracture of newly repaired bone during operations to remove the implants, however bone does not bond to Zr-based alloys.

The inhibition of bone conduction on the surface of Zr-based alloys is thought to be due to the presence of a thin layer of zirconia ZrO2 on the surface. The purpose of the present study was to synthesise bioinert films, including ZrO2 on pure Ti surfaces. After being soaked for different periods of time, the surfaces were observed by SEM.

Implant specimens, 2 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height, were implanted into tibiae of eight-week-old rats. After two weeks, the peripheral sections were extracted. Tissues embedded in polymer were cut and polished and the contact ratio of bone and implant was measured by using optical microscopy.

On the other hand, when citric acid was added the surface of Ti was covered homogeneously with a TiO2—ZrO2 composite film though the amount of ZrO2 was very small. Some of the Zr OH 4 sol in the solution is thought to have dissolved into the solution by coordinate bonding with citric acid carboxyl groups, leading to precipitation of ZrO2 in the TiO2 or on its surface.

TiO2 is known to dissolve sparingly in alkaline solutions. The HAp formation was supressed on the surfaces even though the main constituent of the surfaces was TiO2 which is known to promote the deposition of HAp.

The present TiO2-ZrO2 surface also showed significantly lower bone-implant contact ratio in cortical bone compared with TiO2. Recently, composites of biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite HAp ceramics have been studied to apply artificially-grafting materials. These composites are expected to improve the flexibility and mechanical properties of HAp by mixing flexible biodegradable polymers. Polylactones and polycarbonates, which have biodegradability and flexibility, can be synthesized by using various catalysts such as organometallic compounds and lipases.

By using lipases as catalysts, toxic effects of catalyst residues on human body can be avoided. However, enzymatic polymerizations of polylactones and polycarbonates require long reaction time. To promote oseteoconductivity as artificial bone materials, macro porous-HAp mp-HAp , which had interconnected macro and micro porous, was also fabricated by microwave irradiation. The interest for micro- and nano-manufacturing of polymeric materials is continuously increasing driven by different fields such as polymer-based BioMEMS, stretchable electronics, bioelectronics, conformable sensors and actuators.

The need for polymer-based micro-devices requires the integration of micrometric electrodes, circuits and interconnections on soft and compliant polymeric substrates. Unfortunately, the standard approaches used for producing such structures have many drawbacks in terms of layer adhesion, electrical functionality under stretching, attainable lateral resolution, sample heating and biocompatibility of the obtained materials.

Recently we developed a new method for polymer metallization: the Supersonic Cluster Beam Implantation SCBI of neutral metal nanoparticles or clusters, with size of about 5 nm in a polymer substrate. The nanoparticles are produced in the form of a supersonic beam by a Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source PMCS [1] and are implanted at RT in the polymer substrate forming a metal-polymer nanocomposite layer [2, 3]. This process avoids both sample heating and sample charging, enabling the metallization of ultracompliant soft polymeric materials.

Here we present the application of SCBI for the fabrication of a biocompatible elastomer-based nanocomposite material made by gold nanoparticles implanted in a polydimethylsiloxane PDMS matrix. Furthermore, electrical conduction is preserved also during extreme stretching, so that open circuiting is observed only when the PDMS substrate mechanically breaks.

Biocompatibility tests indicate that neuronal cells adhesion and vitality improve on the nanocomposite, proving the high biocompatibility of this novel material. Finally, we demonstrated the possibility to use SCBI to pattern compliant electrodes with micrometric resolution through standard stencil mask patterning.

These results indicate that SCBI can be considered a promising tool for the fabrication of complex microelectronic circuits and interconnects on stretchable and compliant supports, preserving the electrical performances of the devices even after extensive cycles of stretching. The devices can be efficiently fabricated on biocompatible platforms, and therefore are suitable for the production of the next generation polymer-based implantable biomedical devices.

Wegner, et al. D: Appl. Ravagnan, et al. Marelli, et al. The ability to easily manufacture and manipulate biomaterials is key to the development of biocompatible medical devices. Harsh fabrication techniques derived from the semiconductor industry are often incompatible with biomaterials. Furthermore, these techniques do not take advantage of the natural self-assembly properties that can be exploited to create nanostructures.

Chitin has attracted increased attention in biocompatible device fabrication. Chitin has excellent thermal stability, mechanical strength, biodegradability, and anti-microbial properties. However, chitin water insolubility has limited chitin nanofibers to electro spinning with difficult nano- and microstructure fabrication.

Here, we present a facile approach to chitin nano- and microstructures composed of self-assembled nanofibers. The chitin nanofiber ink is exploited to fabricate 2-D and 3-D structures via replica molding, microcontact printing, and inkjet printing.

Examples include circles, squares, pillars, and optical gratings with features ranging from sub nm to several microns. Cell growth and proliferation studies on these nanofiber structures will be discussed.

Background: Myocardial infarction MI is one of the most common heart disease which results in cardiac dysfunctioning, death of cardiomyocytes CM and ultimate heart failure. Cardiac tissue engineering TE is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct infarcted myocardium, and the major challenge in cardiac TE is to produce a bioactive substrate with aligned fibrillar structure to mimick the extracelluar matrix ECM which provides essential guidance for cell orientation, survival and function.

Isolated rabbit CMs were cultured on the random and aligned electrospun scaffolds to assess scaffold behaviour towards the cell proliferation, structure and function. Regenerative medicine aims to develop biological repair of lost or diseased tissues. Scaffolding materials provide three-dimensional environments for cells and serve as templates for tissue regeneration. Our lab develops biomimetic polymer scaffolds that recapitulate certain advantageous features of the natural extracellular-matrices ECM and impart engineering design to facilitate tissue regeneration.

Novel phase separation techniques have been developed in our laboratory to create biodegradable ECM-mimicking nanofibrous scaffolds. Porous network design and computer assisted body-part shape creation allow for patient specific scaffold fabrication. These scaffolds have been shown to advantageously support various stem cells to regenerate bone and cartilage tissues in a predetermined shape. To repair complexly shaped tissue defects, an injectable cell carrier is desirable to achieve accurate fit and to minimize surgical intervention.

To incorporate the ECM-mimicking nanofibrous feature into an injectable scaffold format, we have recently developed star-shaped biodegradable polymers that can self-assemble into nanofibrous hollow microspheres as novel injectable cell carriers. The nanofibrous hollow microspheres have been shown to efficiently accommodate cells and enhance cartilage regeneration over control microspheres.

The nanofibrous hollow microspheres also support a significantly larger amount and higher quality cartilage regeneration over the chondrocytes alone group and a chondrocyte-encapsulated PEG hydrogel group. These results demonstrate that the nanofibrous scaffolds both in a porous foam format or an injectable hollow microsphere format advantageously support bone and cartilage regeneration.

It is known that both microscale and nanoscale substrate features can affect cell behaviour and aligned features can cause contact guidance in cells. This may be of benefit for engineering tissues whose in vivo architecture consists of distinct aligned fibrous structures such as ligament and skeletal muscle.

Here we report that oriented cellulose nanowhiskers CNWs of less than 10nm in height direct myoblast alignment, differentiation and fusion to produce highly aligned myotubes. The CNWs were prepared from the tunicates Halocynthia roretzi and Ascidiella aspersa by partial hydrolysis with sulphuric acid to produce a stable aqueous suspension of whisker-like nanoparticles with a net anionic charge.

These were then spin coated onto glass coated in the cationic polymer, polyallylamine hydrochloride. Depending on spin speed a high degree of orientation of the CNWs was achieved. The two different sources of CNWs yielded different sized whiskers nm or nm diameter , both of which were able to cause striking myoblast alignment during their proliferative phase.

Myoblast differentiation and fusion to form long multinucleated myotubes occurred with the expression of proteins characteristic of differentiated myotubes. This study shows that features of only nm are capable of controlling myoblast alignment and subsequent fusion into aligned myotubes.

Developing scaffolds with adequate mechanical properties that can temporarily restore the function of a damaged bone tissue and at the same time provide proper environment for the growth of a regenerating bone tissue is one of the challenges in bone tissue engineering. The ability of montmorillonite MMT clay to improve the mechanical properties in case of polymer-clay nanocomposites PCNs is well-known and can be extended for the development of polymer composite scaffolds based on MMT clay.

The choice of unnatural amino acids as modifiers for MMT clay was based on their functional groups, longer backbone chain length compared to the natural amino acids, and our simulations studies on intercalation of aminoacids in clay galleries. Assessing the behavior of cells e. In addition human mesenchymal stem cells were observed to show adequate properties of cell attachment, growth, proliferation and differentiation. Scaffolds of this novel nanocomposite system are fabricated using a variety of polymers and biopolymer systems polycapralactone, chitosan, polygalactouronic acid.

We also report a novel biomineralization procedure developed that uses the clay galleries with amino acids as mineralization sites for hydroxyapatite to enhance the osteoconductive properties of the scaffolds. We also report studies conducted in a bioreactor of the growth of hMSCs. Based on several biocompatibility assays, mechanical tests and also extensive spectroscopic investigations the nanoclays —polymer system appears to present as a viable biomaterial system.

Many techniques have been investigated to form different 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Electrospinning has attracted great attention in the tissue engineering field because it is a simple and versatile technique for fiber production and electrospun fibrous scaffolds mimic the extracellular matrix of body tissues and can elicit excellent cell response. Our previous studies have demonstrated: 1 Calcium phosphate Ca-P nanoparticles could be incorporated into electrospun fibers and these osteoconductive nanocomposite fibers promote osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation better than pure polymer fibers; 2 The controlled release of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein rhBMP-2 from scaffolds produced by selective laser sintering provides the scaffolds with desired osteoinductivity.

Our recent work has shown that growth factors such as rhBMP-2 could be successfully incorporated in polymer fibers through emulsion electrospinning. In the current investigation, multifunctional bicomponent fibrous scaffolds were fabricated for bone tissue engineering using our established dual-source dual-power electrospinning technique.

Through electrospinning optimization, both types of fibers were evenly distributed in bicomponent scaffolds. Using various techniques, the structure and properties of bicomponent scaffolds were characterized. The in vitro release profile of rhBMP-2 as well as degradation behaviour of scaffolds was studied. To further modulate the release behaviour of rhBMP-2, different amounts of polyethylene glycol PEG with a molecular weight of 6, were used to formulate emulsions for the formation of the emulsion electrospun component.

Scaffolds with the modified emulsion electrospun component exhibited better sustained release of rhBMP We have recently evaluated nanoclays as potential components of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Here we report molecular modeling studies of interactions and energetics of various components of the scaffold materials: nanoclays montmorillonite , clay modifiers amino acids , polymers and hydroxyapatite.

This study represents a fundamental approach to the design of biomaterials that could allow for better predictability and tailoring of properties of biomaterials. The molecular interactions between constituents of nano-clay based composites play a key role on the mechanical properties of the composite. Parameters for the individual components of the multiphase system are obtained using ab initio studies and incorporated into molecular models.

Specifically we report studies on valeric acid modified nanoclays with insitu mineralized hydroxyapatite. Clay gallery separation and particle sizes are obtained from transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Molecular models of real material system are constructed using a combination of experimental and simulations. The molecular interactions between the nanocomposite constituents are evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations. Maps of interaction energies between constituents are developed.

These maps, along with the altered phase theory provide an insight into how the various moieties of the nanocomposite would impact the properties of the nanocomposite. This simulations driven approach provides a unique route for design of new nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

The surfaces of many implantable biomedical devices are carefully engineered to stimulate desirable mammalian cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation, but these are simultaneously adhesive to most bacteria and thus are susceptible to microbial colonization. The biomaterials-associated infection that can result is now a critical clinical problem. When an implanted device such as a hip or knee prosthesis becomes colonized by a bacterial biofilm, multiple interventions are required to remove the implant, resolve the infection, and replace the prosthetic.

The consequences to both the patient and the health-care system are serious. Over the past decade there has been increasing effort to create surface coatings that resist bacterial colonization, but these can interfere with the adhesion and proliferation of tissue cells associated with healing.

We have identified a mechanism to create a surface that can simultaneously promote healing while reducing the probability of infection using submicron-sized, non-adhesive microgels patterned on an otherwise cell-adhesive surface. Time-resolved flow-chamber measurements show that the microbial deposition rate dramatically decreases at these same inter-gel spacings. Importantly, the adhesion and spreading of osteoblast-like cells is preserved.

Despite the presence of the non-adhesive microgels, the surface still presents a significant fraction of cell-adhesive area and, in contrast to staphylococci that have highly crosslinked and relatively rigid cell walls, these osteoblast-like cells have fluid cell membranes that can conform to a modulated substrate.

These can be deposited onto biomaterials surfaces, including ones with significant 3-D topography, using electrostatic self assembly. In addition to the intrinsic differential adhesion between such a microgel-modified surface, bacteria, and tissue cells, the microgels can be electrostatically loaded with antimicrobials such as cationic peptides and antibiotics in order to actively kill bacteria while still preserving a surface conductive to tissue ingrowth.

Electrospinning is an inexpensive, simple technique that is used to create non-woven meshes for a variety of applications. It is a method that applies a very large electric field between a syringe pump filled with a solvated polymer with a high glass transition temperature and a grounded collection plate in order to produce micro- or nano-fibers.

As the solvent evaporates the fibers are formed through entanglement of the polymer chains during flight. Recently we have developed a technique that enables polymers with low glass transition temperatures below room temperature to be electrospun. The recently developed technique uses a UV source to crosslink the polymer in situ in order to form micro- and nano-fiberous scaffolds. We have further demonstrated that the rate of crosslinked polymer degradation is dependent on the polymer chemistry, for example 1,3-polybutylene fumarate degrades faster than 1,2-polypropylene fumarate.

Control of the fiber size and pore density within the electrospun scaffold combined with control over polymer degradation chemistry provides a versatile materials platform that allows fine control over the material degradation rate, making it ideal for use in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Processing parameters of the in situ crosslinking during electrospinning as well as the degradation rates of the fumarate polymers will be discussed.

Bone tissue engineering has become a huge field, a great variety of different material systems have beenexplored for their potential use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Quite naturallyamong all these materials, such based on the actual elementary components of bone,i.

A close inspection of century-long chemical investigationsclearly shows that there is a larger variety of compositions, ranging all theway from almost unmineralized osteoid in early deposition stages to tissues consistingmainly of hydroxyapatite. They turn out as quantitativereflections of the well-instrumented interplay of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes,and their precursors, controlling, in a fine-tuned fashion, the chemical genesisand continuous transformation of the extracellular bone matrix.

Considerations ofthe aformentioned rules may strongly affect the potential success of tissue engineeringstrategies, in particular when translating, via micromechanics, the aformentionedgrowth and mineralization characteristics into tissue-specific elastic properties. The introduction of CNTs into traditional biomaterial scaffolds offers the possibility of improved mechanical strength, durability, directed cell guidance, and controlled differentiation and migration of cells.

Despite the exploding research regarding CNTs for biomaterial applications, there is lack of approach to control the orientation, packing density, and hierarchical organization of CNTs with biomolecules. One of the major challenges for effectively exploiting the remarkable mechanical and electric properties of CNTs in biomaterials is the controlled assembly of individual CNTs into useful macroscopic structures.

Here we present the controlled assembly of CNTs with collagen biomolecules from nanoscale to macroscale by using a novel electrochemical process. In this process, both CNTs and collagen are charged due to pH gradient existing between two electrodes.

Both CNTs and collagen are isoelectrically focused and packed into a dense structure. First, a fully dispersed CNTs and topo collagen mixture was formed by dispersing functionalized CNTs into dialyzed collagen solution. By using linear or plate electrodes, CNTs and collagen mixture was controlled assembled into 1D aligned fibers or 2D planarly-aligned sheet. Our results indicated that the electrochemical process can control the assembly of both CNTs and collagen simultaneously. In the aligned fiber, both collagen and CNTs are aligned along the fiber direction.

In the aligned sheet, both collagen and CNTs are randomly distributed onto the plane. Nano-indentation indicated that the mechanical properties of CNTs-collagen scaffold is dramatically improved due to this unique co-assembly process. Finally, cell biocompatiblity test indicated that CNT-collagen has very good cell biocompatiblity. This study indicated that controlled assembled CNTs-collagen material fabricated by the electrochemical process might be useful as novel tissue scaffolds with tunable composition, anisotropy, and biomechanial properties.

A critical component for successful engineering of complex three-dimensional 3D tissue from a cell source is the production and utilisation of the appropriate 3D scaffold. Indeed, cells on a flat surface grow typically in a monolayer fashion, while 3D cell culture can only be achieved via cell growth in a 3D environment or scaffold.

We combine these direct write techniques with in house synthesized polylactide PLA and polycaprolactone PCL -based liquid prepolymers. These resins cure under UV-irradiation single-photon and under femtosecond IR irradiation two-photon. In 2-photon polymerisation the material polymerises only at the focal point of the optical set-up enabling real 3D Direct Laser Write DLW via scanning the laser through the material.

Both these laser set-ups produced structures with sub-micrometer resolution. We will discuss the use of these polymers to produce user defined 3D structures via both conventional stereolithography and 2-photon polymerization. We will further highlight the use of these photocurable biodegradable resins for manufacturing neural guidance conduits. Claeyssens, et al.

Gill and F. Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface.

These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals.

Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface.

The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly dimethyl siloxane PDMS as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly butylene fumarate PBF. Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning.

The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWNTs. Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results. Surface anisotropy i. Specifically, a given discrete unit, with anisotropy of chemical or physical properties e. For these reasons, discrete, synthetic building blocks that mimic anisotropy seen in nature could increase efficiency in the areas of sensors, opto-electronic devices, modulators, and drug delivery systems.

Here, we report a new and robust technique to produce ordered patches around microspheres via combination of solid and liquid-phase deposition. The solid component of this new technique employs the microspheres themselves in proximity to its neighbors to determine the resulting pattern.

The organization of the particles with respect to one another may be as simple as particle doublets one contact point between particles to lines of particles 2 contact points per particle degrees on opposite poles , to more complex formations that lead to any number of contact points between solid microspheres.

The liquid phase component of the processing technique takes advantage of surface tension and dewetting such that solutions of masking material may be localized only to the contact points between microspheres. Any number of patch materials can be used including various polymers and even precipitated sugars, salts and even lipids. We have also recently demonstrated the ability to spontaneously form various microstructures with these anisotropic particles using a ratio of particles with various numbers of patches of biotin using a streptavidin trigger.

Recently, an inexpensive 3D lithography technique was developed by Professor Nicholas Fang at the University of Illinois where a projector is used in combination with a Powerpoint presentation to expose the liquid negative-tone photoresist 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate in a layer-by-layer fashion. All the fumarate based polymers are viscous liquids which makes them ideal for the projector based lithography technique when used in combination with the photoinitiator bisphenyl 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl -phosphine oxide BAPO.

Furthermore, the fumarate based materials are biocompatible and are suitable candidates for tissue engineering applications. Polymer synthesis, lithography processing parameters as well as cell studies will be presented and compared to other techniques such as electrospinning, which have been recently used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffold structures from fumarate-based polymers. Nanotechnology is a revolutionary area that has impacted several areas of materials science and engineering.

The reduced system dimensionalities and nano-crystalline grain sizes have led to some uniquely distinct phenomena that were hitherto unknown, serving as a harbinger to a new class of functional devices. Nanostructures and nanocomposites have thus been synonymous in various areas of electronics, optics, magnetic and even biotechnology. The ability to generate nano-sized carriers for growth factors, proteins and plasmid DNA for non-viral gene delivery has been garnering significant interest.

Accordingly, we have developed innovative approaches to synthesize bio-ceramic nano-particles, bioceramic-biological material composites, and novel forms of biocompatible calcium phosphate CaP putties under physiological conditions. These nanoscale complex systems show excellent affinity for binding and condensing plasmid DNA pDNA leading to excellent in vitro gene transfection indicative of their potential in non-viral gene delivery.

The nano-particle complexes when incorporated into the cement forming mix results in a novel nanostructured, bioactive functional cement under physiological conditions at neutral pH highly amenable for incorporating signaling molecules, biologics and cells. The complex engineered system when implanted in animal models shows great promise for mineralized tissue regeneration. The presentation will finally conclude with the implications of these novel materials in the area of biotechnology for mineralized and even stem cell tissue engineering.

This talk focuses on the fabrication and analysis of bioinspired bone composites using either a biogenic or synthetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Bovine femur samples were deproteinized in a sodium hypocholride solution, which resulted in a stand-alone structure consisting of a porous network of hydroxyapatite crystals.

The synthetic scaffolds were prepared by freeze-casting of commercially available hydroxyapatite, with similar porosities to the natural scaffolds. The scaffolds were filled with various polymer resins and tested in compression. Comparisons between the composites, orientation effects and microscopic evaluation will be presented.

The need for a synthetic implant to address multiple physical and biological factors imposes tremendous constraints on the choice of suitable materials. There is a strong belief that nanoscale materials will produce a new generation of implant materials with high-efficiency, low cost, and high volume.

Metallic implants have been successfully used for decades but they have serious shortcomings related to their osseointegration and the fact that their mechanical properties do not match those of bone. Current surface chemistries and morphologies are controlled, at best, at the micron level, but tissue response is mainly dictated by processes controlled at the nanoscale.

Understanding and controlling interfacial reactions at the nano level is the key to developing new implant surfaces that will eliminate rejection and promote adhesion and integration to the surrounding tissue. Our results show ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal hybrid materials with toughness well in excess of those expected from a rule of mixtures construction can be fabricated. The ultimate goal is to produce materials and therapies that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and improve the quality of life and current standards of care.

Collagens extracted from mammal animals such as bovine and porcine gradually limit the usage of collagen productions in the fields of biological, biomedical, food and cosmetic, since mammal animals have common virus with human being.

Therefore, collagen from animate beings without amphixenosis virus has been requested. Fish is a favorable source due to its large scale aqua-farming and no amphixenosis virus. In particular, tilapia fish scale satisfies essential conditions of collagen in industrial usage such as large scale production, high denaturation temperature K , and low impurity of fat. In this study, collagen fibril membranes CFMs as scaffold were prepared from tilapia fish scale collagen by using a facile drying method, and were cross-linked with a glutaraldehyde GA gaseous in order to enhance the mechanical property.

The micro- and nano-structures, degree of crosslinking, denaturation temperature, and tensile strength for CFMs were evaluated and discussed. The density and thickness of the CFMs prepared were 0. Atomic force microscopic images exhibited the characteristic striped pattern at 67 nm of native collagen fibrils. The fibrogenesis of collagen improved denaturation temperature at 10 K compared with that of collagen molecular dispersed in an acidic solution.

The denaturation temperatures of the CFMs treated with different duration times of GA gaseous were varied in three steps at the degree of crosslinking. In the first step i. In the second step i. The maximal denaturation temperature of the CFMs with the degree of crosslinking of The CFMs at the degree of crosslinking less than In contrast, the degree of crosslinking exceeded The microstructure of CFMs with degree of crosslinking of The CFMs with the high density were successfully prepared.

The tensile strength of CFMs was classified into three groups including non-crosslinked CFMs, which was apparently correlated to the degree of crosslinking. Nacre is a natural nanocomposite with superior mechanical strength and eminent toughness. What is the recipe that Mother Nature uses to fabricate nacre?

What roles do the nanoscale structures play in the inelasticity and toughening of nacre? Can we learn from this to produce nacre-like nanocomposites? It was found that rotation and deformation of aragonite nanoparticles are the two prominent mechanisms contributing to energy dissipation in nacre. The biopolymer spacing between nanoparticles facilitates the particle rotation process. Individual aragonite nanoparticles are deformable.

Dislocation formation together with deformation twinning were found to play an important role in the plastic deformation of individual nanoparticles, contributing remarkably to the strength and toughness of nacre upon dynamic loading. Proteins reflect one fascinating class of natural hierarchically structured substances. The interplay between the polymeric building blocks is intriguing, and for long researchers tried to unravel the underlying concepts. One well-known example is spider silk with excellent mechanical properties such as strength and toughness.

Most spider silks are used for building the web, which reflects an optimized trap for flying prey. In order to analyze the potential of the underlying spider silk proteins, we have developed a recombinant system using bacteria as hosts which produce silk proteins mimicking the natural spider silks. Recombinant proteins enable detailed analysis of the fiber formation process.

Additionally, silk proteins can be processed into other morphologies such as hydrogels, spheres or films with tailored properties for biomedical applications. Due to their unique shape memory and superelastic properties, NiTi shape memory alloys SMAs are promising metallic biomaterials for making cardiovascular, orthopaedic and dental devices.

However, their long-term biocompatibility and wear properties give rise to concerns about their long-term clinical applications. In long-term implantation, Ni ions released from NiTi SMA implants and corrosion products on the implants can trigger toxic, allergic and potentially carcinogenic effects.

Furthermore, long-term wear and wear debris from orthopedic joint implants can initiate a cascade of complex cellular events that will result in aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. For some applications in orthopaedics and dentistry, NiTi SMA implants also need to possess desirable bioactivity osteoconductivity. Fabricating a dense and uniform coating on the surface of NiTi SMA implants using an appropriate surface modification technique is an effective way to achieve a good combination of bioactivity, long-term biocompability, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties including wear resistance for the implants.

In recent years, many surface modification techniques, including H2O2-oxidation, biomimetic deposition, electrochemical deposition and magnetron sputtering, have been investigated for the fabrication of novel and high quality coatings for NiTi SMAs. Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition PIIID is a hybrid process that involves both ion implantation and deposition and usually forms an atomically intermixed layer between the metal substrate and coating, resulting in high bonding strength of coatings.

Coatings produced via PIIID are relatively thick as compared to coatings made by other ion beam techniques. The coatings were relatively thick around 1 micron, as compared to the coating thickness of tens of nanometers achieved by PIII , uniform and dense. In vitro assessment indicated that the biological performance of coated NiTi SMA was also significantly enhanced. The stem cell niche is an in vivo micro-environment that subjects cells to a multitude of disparate biological stimuli e.

Understanding and controlling the stem cell niche is the holy grail for engineering cellular constructs by creating artificial micro-environments which drive stem cells towards desired maintenance or differentiation. A critical aspect of designing a construct from artificial niches is the ability to spatially control the placement of biomaterial units e.

The ability to deposit stem cells and individual cell-encapsulated hydrogel micro-beads provides a unique platform for synthesizing a combinatory library of stem cell micro-environments to better understand the factors that drive stem cell differentiation. Our lab has demonstrated the ability to deposit mouse embyronic stem cells mESCs and mESCs encapsulated in alginate micro-beads with diameters ranging from um.

Microcantilevers are widely used as chemical sensors for a variety of applications. Classically, they are functionalized by a sensitive coating ensuring selectivity towards analytes, while standard operating mode of such devices is based on their resonance, defining the sensitivity of the sensors. However, their use for the detection of ultra-low concentrations of analytes remains challenging, especially in liquid media where viscous damping occurs.

Among other solutions, the limit of detection of cantilevers can be improved by increasing the number of receptors available for analyte binding. In this context, porous materials are being evaluated as a powerful alternative. Indeed, by creating 3D microstructures made of porous materials organic or inorganic , the surface to volume ratio can be improved by several orders of magnitude, when compared to flat patterns.

In the present work, we describe the improvement of the limit of detection of MEMS-based sensing platforms by creating inorganic and organic porous microcantilevers. First, concerning environmental analysis, biomimetic polymers based on molecular imprinting "plastic antibodies"- MIPs are used to create free-standing organic cantilevers.

The porosity of this coating is provided by incorporating a co-porogenic agent polyvinylacetate into the prepolymerization mixture, so that imprinted cavities available for analyte binding are accessible in the volume of the 3D microstructure. Moreover, the cantilevers are made of MIPs in an all-organic approach, combining binding sensitivity and selectivity with a functional mechanical structure, avoiding energy losses due to the interface between structural and sensitive layers.

A new approach is proposed for the patterning of MIPs based on shadow-masking. A flexible microstencil made of SU-8 combined with spray-coating allows deposition and patterning of the prepolymerization mixture in one step. A similar approach is used for the elaboration of porous gold cantilevers for diagnostic applications. Indeed, starting from a patterned flat gold path, we have tested a method for the elaboration of 3D inorganic porous microstructures.

It consists in the electrodeposition of gold through multilayered matrices of self-assembled silica nanobeads obtained by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The primary flat layer is patterned thanks to the stenciling method where thermal evaporation of gold is used. Then, for the elaboration of free-standing cantilevers, the structures made of MIP or gold are transferred onto SU-8 chips by using a SU-8 wafer-bonding process that is well-suited for the wafer-level fabrication of cantilevers, independently from the material used as structural layer.

As a result, the performances of these original organic and inorganic porous cantilevers will be presented and compared to traditional MEMS sensors to demonstrate their application potential. The production of autologous implants using in vitro cultured, confluent; keratinocyte cell sheets harvested from thermoresponsive polymer surfaces has been previously described 1.

The deposition of fibroblasts using a piezoelectric ink-jet printer has been shown to have no significant effect on cell metabolic function and replication 2. The experiments presented here, demonstrate the viability of the utilization of ink-jet printing to produce patterned, confluent cell sheets harvestable from a thermoresponsive polymer culture surface. DOK keratinocyte cells were printed using a drop on demand piezoelectric printer Microfab, Plano, TX, USA at three different pulse amplitudes to assess post-printing viability.

Proliferation of cells printed at 40, 60 and 80 V were monitored using the metabolic alamar blue assay and DNA assay. DOK cells were directly printed onto a thermoresponsive surface upcell, Nunc and allowed to proliferate to confluence. The cell sheets were then lifted and measured. Patterned cell sheets were fabricated by staining a DOK cell suspension and printing a patterned array.

Each single layer pattern was generated by overprinting 20 times to help maintain hydration. Once the stained cells attached to the thermoresponsive surface then a layer of unstained keratinocyte cells were added to generate a self-standing patterned sheet. All cells demonstrated post printing viability and proliferated to confluence. The mean surface area of the printed cell sheet was 7. The DNA analysis demonstrated proliferation of printed cells over the time points studied whilst the metabolic activity of the printed samples demonstrated a dip at the second time point, but then increased over the next two time points.

This may suggest an impairment of metabolic function imparted on the cells by the printing process. Stained cells were successfully printed into an array to create a patterned cell sheet. Nishida, K. Saunders, R. Gough and B. Oxygen tension imposes profound effects in a variety of important chemical and biological activities, thus it is of critical significance to develop effective, accurate, high performance sensors to precisely monitor the amount of oxygen in real time.

Besides, the desired sensing method should also be compatible with miniaturized, automatic instruments in order to achieve high throughput measurements. Here we report a novel type of particulate sensors with the capability to meet all of the above requirements. These specific particulate sensors are based on monodisperse Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS microbeads, which are produced through specific droplet microfluidic techniques and have been incorporated with oxygen-sensitive dyes to have the sensing ability.

First of all we have developed a novel microfluidic platform to produce PDMS microbeads. A thermal-plastic microfluidic device with flow focusing configuration has been used as the droplet generator, and a flow of PDMS precursor mixture has been continuously dispersed into monodisperse microdroplets within a continuous phase of aqueous solution.

Discrete PDMS microdroplets are produced thus and are collected in a glass vial thereafter, where they are subsequently cured thermally into stable microbeads. Their sizes can also be systematically varied in the range from 10 to microns by adjusting the relative flow rate ratio as well as engineering the microfluidic channel sizes. By taking advantage of excellent properties of PDMS, including being inert, stable and transparent, these PDMS microbeads possess high application potential in many fields.

Here we have used them as particulate carriers to produce oxygen sensors. To accomplish this target, we have integrated an oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent dye, Pt II meso-tetrakis pentafluorophenyl porphine PtTFPP , into the dispersed solution in advance. The relationship between oxygen concentration and emission intensity of PtTFPP phosphorescence strictly follows the Stern-Volmer equation, ensuring precise measurements of oxygen in real time.

There are three important factors contributing to the high performance of our particulate oxygen sensors. First, the high gas permeability of PDMS Barrer allows rapid exchange of oxygen molecules through the entire textual matrix and thus ensures their fast response and high sensitivity.

Additionally, their narrow size distribution provides excellent reproducibility among groups of individual particles, which is a crucial consideration for many applications. Moreover, since these PDMS sensors are themselves microsized and can also be produced in massive amount, they have the capability to be integrated with automatic detection systems, offering the possibility to carry out rapid, high throughput measuring of multiple samples in short time.

Advances in micro- and nano-scale processing technologies have provided various therapeutic opportunities in the field of medicine. While techniques developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications have had initial successes in building a number of tissues clinically, challenges still exist in developing complex tissue systems. One of the challenges that hamper rapid clinical translation is due to the lack of efficient delivery methods for cells and biomaterials.

Living tissues maintain inherent multi-cellular heterogeneous structures, and rebuilding of such complex tissue structures requires subtle arrangements of different cell types and extracellular matrices at their specific anatomical target sites. Biofabrication using an inkjet printing technology has been proposed as a tool to address this endeavor. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Conference proceedings AMT Papers Table of contents 36 papers About About these proceedings Table of contents Search within event.

Front Matter. Pages Towards Conversational Artifacts. Ontology Extraction and Integration from Semi-structured Data. Dalia B. Nasr, Hatem M. Bahig, Sameh S. Hot Topic Detection in Professional Blogs. Tags Weighting Based on User Profile.


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On each hole points are awarded for any of these accomplishments:. The player who has more points at the end of the round, wins. Round Robin is a side game for groups of four players. Three 6 hole matches are played 2 vs 2. Players change partners after each 6-hole match so each player partners every other player in the group. A combination of Betterball and Aggregate.

On each hole a point is awarded for the betterball and one awarded for the combined. Good game for mixed handicap groupings. The Player with the lowest handicap plays scratch and the others play with the difference between his handicap and the lowest one. On each hole, 6 points are at stake:.

A really funny game to play. Bingo Bango Bongo is a points-based game for two or more players. Each hole is played for three points:. If one player wins all three points on a hole wins double points. The player with higher points at the end of the round wins. This game gives weaker players a chance to earn points because what matters is being first at something. Strict etiquette must be enforced, the player who is away always plays first. The golfer or the team get to compare corresponding scores on the scorecard and choose the lower of two sores, resulting in a 9-hole total score.

Add up the 9 holes selected for the total score. On each hole the stableford scorings are multiplied to get the team scoring. If a player wipes a hole, the team will get no score as zero times anythng equals zero! The name comes from the comic strip Mutt and Jeff, which appeared in newspapaers in the USA from the early s into the s focused on the adventures of two friends: Mutt, big and Jeff, small.

Longest Yard is a side game that uses the hole yardages to determine points awarded for winning a hole. The player with the lowest score on a hole, win as much points as the distance of that hole. Holes that are halved do not award points. Funny side game, as winning a long par 5 gives you 3 or 4 times the points than winning a par 3. And there are around 6. You can play it singles or in pairs. Ghost is a game of Fourball Better Ball matchplay, but with 3 real players and one imaginary player called the Ghost.

One player plays with the Ghost who always pars every hole. The Ghost plays off scratch and gives shots to every other player in the group. The game is usually better when the highest handicap plays with the Ghost. In this game, after everyone gets on the green and regardless of the number of strokes, the player closest to the hole gets 3 points if it is a 4 player round 2 when 3 players and 1 when just 2 players , the next player closest to the hole gets 2 points 1 if in a 3 players round , the next player closest to the hole gets 1 point and the player farthest from the hole gets no points.

The player with more points at the end of the round wins. Perfecto is a betting game that awards a golfer who hits the fairway, hits the green in regulation and makes par or better on a hole. A team game of two players. Player 1 takes the odd holes and player 2 takes the even holes to make the team score. If you play with handicap, the two handicaps are added together, then divided by two and deducted from the combined score. Side Game where two teams of two players play against each other using aggregate scoring.

At the end of each hole, scores of players of each team are added to get the team score aggregate. Side Game where two teams of two players play against each other, hole after hole, using aggregate scoring. At the end of the hole,the agregate scores of both players of each team are compared to decide the winner of the hole. The team that wins more holes win the Game.

The Player that wins more holes wins the Match. Who wins more matches wins the game. The first 3 holes are each worth 1 point, the next 3 holes are each worth 2 points and the next 3 holes are worth 3 points. This pattern is repeated on the next nine holes. The winner of the hole gets the relevant points. If a hole is tied, then the next hole jackpots and continues to do so until there is a win. The subsequent hole then reverts back to its individual amount.

The winner is the player with the most points. The player with the lowest net score on each hole becomes the Chairman on the following hole. The winner is the person who wins the most holes. If two players tie then the current Chairman continues for the next hole. On each hole each player starts with 4 points.

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