The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of approach angle on kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics of penalty kicks. Kicking accuracy and three-dimensional kinematics were recorded. It was concluded that altering an individual's self-selected approach angle at recreational level did not improve kicking accuracy or ball velocity, despite altering aspects of underlying technique.
Kicks from the penalty mark in soccer : the roles of stress, skill, and fatigue for kick outcomes. The soccer "penalty shootout" in the knock-out phase of major international tournaments is one of the most dramatic events in international soccer. The outcome of these kicks is typically attributed to factors such as psychology e.
The purpose of this study was to use internet game record data to estimate the relative importance of these performance components for the outcome of penalty kicks in international matches. Data were collected from soccer statistics internet sites on all 41 penalty shootouts and kicks taken in the World Cup, European Championships, and Copa America between and The results showed that the importance of the kicks indicative of stress was negatively related to the outcomes of the kicks , whereas skill and fatigue were less, or not, related to outcome.
It was concluded that psychological components are most influential for the outcome of penalty kicks. We recommend that practitioners work with players to reduce the perceived importance of each kick. Difference in kick motion of adolescent soccer players in presence and absence of low back pain.
Many adolescent soccer players experience low back pain LBP. However, there are no reports studying the kick motion of adolescent soccer players experiencing LBP. This study aimed to clarify the kick motion of adolescent soccer players in the presence and absence of LBP. We measured real-time kick motion using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. We placed 65 spherical markers on each anatomical landmark and calculated the angle of the lumbar spine, center of mass COM of the whole body, and displacement of the support foot.
We used an unpaired t-test to compare the data between the groups. The presence of LBP affected the posterior positioning of the support foot and restricted the player's lumbar spine from bending laterally. A lateral shift in COM and larger rotation of the lumbar spine could stress the lumbar spine during kick motion. Therefore, coaches and athletic trainers should pay attention to soccer players' lumbar spine rotation and the COM shift during kick motion.
This would be important for preventing LBP in adolescent soccer players. All rights reserved. Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine inter and intra positional differences in ball kicking speed between U Croatian soccer players. The tests took place two days in a row; beginning at 8 A. Prior to the tests, players warmed up and stretched for 20 minutes 13 minutes of running with and without the ball, 7 minutes of dynamic stretching.
The fastest kicks were instep kicks when stationary and non-stationary ball was kicked. Shots were taken by midfielders with Similar to dominant leg, midfielders also achieved the fastest instep kicks with non-dominant leg Intra positional differences revealed that soccer kick velocity is one of possible selection tools, because more efficient players in all playing lines shoot faster kicks than less efficient players. The effect of plyometric training on power and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training on vertical jump VJ and kicking distance in female adolescent soccer players. Sixteen adolescent soccer players were studied age The control group general soccer training only had 6 subjects, and the plyometric training general soccer training plus plyometric exercise group had 10 subjects. All subjects were tested for VJ and kicking distance on 3 occasions: pre-test, 7 weeks, and 14 weeks.
These results provide strength coaches with a safe and effective alternative to high-intensity plyometric training. Based on these findings, to increase lower-body power resulting in increased VJ and kicking distance, strength coaches should implement once-weekly, low-impact plyometric training programs with their adolescent athletes.
Dynamic knee stability and ballistic knee movement after ACL reconstruction: an application on instep soccer kick. The instep soccer kick is a pre-programmed ballistic movement with a typical agonist-antagonist coordination pattern. The coordination pattern of the kick can provide insight into deficient neuromuscular control. Seventeen players from the Portuguese Soccer League participated in this study.
Eight ACL-reconstructed athletes experimental group and 9 healthy individuals control group performed three instep kicks. Knee kinematics flexion and extension angles at football contact and maximum velocity instants were calculated during the kicks. Rectus femoris RF , vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoralis, and semitendinosus muscle activations were quantified during the knee extension phase.
The ACL-reconstructed group had significantly lower knee extension angle Performing open kinetic chain exercises using ballistic movements can be beneficial when recovering from ACL reconstruction. The exercises should focus on achieving multi-joint coordination and full knee extension range of motion. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players. Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail.
Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing A lower peak hip linear velocity 3. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active.
A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern.
Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement. The acute effects of graded physiological strain on soccer kicking performance: a randomized, controlled cross-over study. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of graded physiological strain on soccer kicking performance. Twenty-eight semi-professional soccer players completed both experimental and control procedure.
The experimental protocol incorporated repeated shooting trials combined with a progressive discontinuous maximal shuttle-run intervention. The control protocol comprised only eight subsequent shooting trials. The soccer -specific kicking accuracy KA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal center , kicking velocity KV , and kicking quality KQ; kicking accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry were evaluated via reproducible and valid test over five individually determined exercise intensity zones.
The results suggest that high-intensity physiological exertion above the player's LT2 impairs soccer kicking performance. In contrast, light to moderate physiological stress appears to be neither harmful nor beneficial for kicking performance. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players. Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players.
Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks.
The players Effect of soccer shoe upper on ball behaviour in curve kicks. New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking , such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear.
In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results.
The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation.
Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.
Soccer Stories: a kick -off for visual soccer analysis. This article presents Soccer Stories, a visualization interface to support analysts in exploring soccer data and communicating interesting insights. Currently, most analyses on such data relate to statistics on individual players or teams. However, soccer analysts we collaborated with consider that quantitative analysis alone does not convey the right picture of the game, as context, player positions and phases of player actions are the most relevant aspects.
We designed Soccer Stories to support the current practice of soccer analysts and to enrich it, both in the analysis and communication stages. To evaluate our tool, we ran two qualitative user studies on recent games using Soccer Stories with data from one of the world's leading live sports data providers. The first study resulted in a series of four articles on soccer tactics, by a tactics analyst, who said he would not have been able to write these otherwise.
The second study consisted in an exploratory follow-up to investigate design alternatives for embedding soccer phases into word-sized graphics. For both experiments, we received a very enthusiastic feedback and participants consider further use of Soccer Stories to enhance their current workflow.
A comparison of ball velocity in different kicking positions with dominant and non-dominant leg in junior soccer players. Full Text Available Problem Statement: The aim of this study was to compare the ball velocity in different kicking conditions with dominant and non-dominant leg in junior soccer players.
Approach: Sixteen junior soccer players age All participants kicked a soccer ball three times in seven conditions with the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest ball velocity was used for analysis. The study aimed to evaluate the test—retest reliability of a newly developed Soccer Shooting Test SST , and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity BV; measured via radar gun , shooting accuracy SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre , and shooting quality SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry.
No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables SA: 1. Finally, all three SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance.
Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations. Construct validity of tests that measure kick performance for young soccer players based on cluster analysis: exploring the relationship between coaches rating and actual measures. The main aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the classification of coaches and actual performance in field tests that measure the kicking performance in young soccer players, using the K-means clustering technique.
Twenty-three U players performed 8 tests to measure their kicking performance. Four experienced coaches provided a rating for each player as follows: 1: poor; 2: below average; 3: average; 4: very good; 5: excellent as related to three parameters i. The scores interval established from k-means cluster metric was useful to originating five groups of performance level, since ANOVA revealed significant differences between clusters generated Pperformance. The Wall Volley Test seems to be a good predictor of other tests.
Five tests showed reasonable construct validity and can be used to predict the accuracy penalty kick , free kick , kicking a rolling ball and Wall Volley Test and ability to put spin on the ball free kick and corner kick tests when kicking in soccer. In contrast, the goal kick , kicking the ball when airborne and the vertical kick tests exhibited low power of discrimination and using them should be viewed with caution.
This study confirmed the hypothesized existence of sweet and dead spots on a soccer boot or foot when kicking a ball. The sweet spot was rather concentrated, independent of which parameter combination was used two- or three-parameter combination , whereas the dead zone, located 21 mm from the sweet spot, was more widespread. Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep- kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick , which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games.
In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences.
The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass CoM , which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability.
Coaches can use these results to provide effective instructions to players in the learning process, moving their focus on kicking speed and upper body behavior. A field simulation study of the effectiveness of penalty kick strategies in soccer : late alterations of kick direction increase errors and reduce accuracy. This field experiment investigated the relative merits of approaching the penalty kick with either a keeper-independent or keeper-dependent strategy. In the keeper-independent strategy, the shooter selects a target location in advance and disregards the goalkeeper's actions during the run-up.
In the. We established two groups of kickers who underwent 11 treatment sessions using different strategies and then conducted a posttreatment test. The variables we measured were the number of goals. Direct perception vs inferential processes in reading an opponent's mind: The case of a goalkeeper facing a soccer penalty kick.
Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al. In engineering cybernetics, observability is a measure of how well internal states of a system can be inferred from knowledge of its external outputs. Moreover, observability and controllability of a system are mathematically inter-related properties in the sense that it does not matter to have access to hidden states if this knowledge is not exploited for achieving a goal.
While such issues can be well posed in the engineering field, in cognitive neuroscience it is quite difficult to restrict the analysis in such a way to isolate direct perception from other cognitive processes, named as "inferences" by the authors , without losing a great part of the action unless one trivializes the meaning of "direct" by stating that "all perception is direct": Gallagher and Zahavi .
In other words, in spite of the elegance and scientific rigor of the proposed experimental strategy, in our opinion it misses the fact that in real human-human interactions "direct perception" and "inference" are two faces of the same coin and mental states in a social context are, in a general sense, accessible on the basis of directly perceived sensory signals here and now tuned by expectations.
In the following, we elaborate this opinion with reference to a competitive interaction paradigm, namely the attempt of a goalkeeper to save a soccer penalty kick by "reading the mind" of his opponent. The coefficient of restitution COR was determined for toe and instep soccer kicks. Furthermore, experiments were performed with a pendulum that modeled the different impact areas in toe and instep kicking.
Six sub-elite soccer players performed 20 toe and 20 instep kicks with no run-up at a range In the pendulum experiments the COR was larger for the small area Toe at all velocities, whereas this only was found at the lower velocities areas in the two Study of soccer ball flight trajectory. Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters.
The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink. Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers.
A novel methodological approach is presented to examine the visual search behaviours employed by expert goalkeepers during simulated penalty kick situations in soccer. Expert soccer goalkeepers were classified as successful or unsuccessful based on their performance on a film-based test of. Effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of intercollegiate female soccer players. Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important training program in improving physical fitness and soccer skills of players.
The study was conducted to find out the effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of Haramaya University intercollegiate female soccer players. Tests were taken three times at pre training, during training and post training.
Comparison of mean was done by paired t-test. The results obtained in this study indicated that there was significant improvement in selected physical fitness and soccer skill variables due to the effects of plyometric training. This study proved that plyometric training was significantly better in improving the physical fitness variables and soccer skills of female soccer players. Solar soccer. What do Italy and Germany have in common? The world's largest PV markets and world class soccer.
But while PV systems are frequently found on the rooftops of Germany's soccer stadiums, Italy has left this potential largely untapped. Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s —1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk.
We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre- kicked disk.
Full Text Available An year-old youth soccer forward received a direct hit from a kicked soccer ball on the anterior right chest when the goal keeper kicked the ball from a distance of 1 meter. Immediately following the hit, the subject experienced dypnea, chest pain and had a cough, with several milliliters of hemoptysis.
His symptoms subsided after 20 minutes of rest. However, he still felt mild discomfort and was taken to our department for evaluation. On examination, all vital signs were normal. A computed tomography scan of the chest was obtained, and revealed a small area of opacification in the right lung field suggesting a pulmonary contusion or traumatic lung edema. Ten days after the initial injury, he was cleared for full participation. We herein reported the first case of a lung lesion induced by a soccer ball.
Conservative treatment resulted in a favorable outcome. Neutron star kicks and asymmetric supernovae. Observational advances over the last decade have left little doubt that neutron stars received a large kick velocity of order a few hundred to a thousand km s -1 at birth. The physical origin of the kicks and the related supernova asymmetry is one of the central unsolved mysteries of supernova research. We review the physics of different kick mechanisms, including hydrodynamically driven, neutrino - magnetic field driven, and electromagnetically driven kicks.
The viabilities of the different kick mechanisms are directly related to the other key parameters characterizing nascent neutron stars, such as the initial magnetic field and the initial spin. Recent observational constraints on kick mechanisms are also discussed. Kicking the Football? Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus or all my plans together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks.
I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time.
I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively.
It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers.
For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities.
Even more. Transient localization in the kicked Rydberg atom. We investigate the long-time limit of quantum localization of the kicked Rydberg atom. The quantum localization is shown to vanish as either the strength of the kicks at fixed principal quantum number or the quantum number at fixed kick strength increases. The survival probability The "Russian roulette" of soccer? Kicks from the penalty mark official term for the "penalty shootout" are regularly featured in major soccer tournaments to determine the outcome of tied games.
Investigation of kinematics of knuckling shot in soccer. In this study, we use four high-speed video cameras to investigate the swing characteristics of the kicking leg while delivering the knuckling shot in soccer. We attempt to elucidate the impact process of the kicking foot at the instant of its impact with the ball and the technical mechanisms of the knuckling shot via comparison of its curved motion with that of the straight and curved shots. Two high-speed cameras Fastcam, Photron Inc.
We observe that the ankle joint at impact in the knuckling shot flexes in an approximate L-shape in a manner similar to the joint flexing for the curve shot. The hip's external rotation torque in the knuckling shot is greater than those of other shots, which suggests the tendency of the kicker to push the heel forward and impact with the inside of the foot. The angle of attack in the knuckling shot is smaller than that in other shots, and we speculate that this small attack angle is a factor in soccer kicks which generate shots with smaller rotational frequencies of the ball.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate joint kinematics of the kicking leg in Taekwondo and to examine the role of inter-joint coordination of the leg in producing the kicking velocity. A new inter-joint coordination index that encompasses three- dimensional hip and knee motions, was defined and applied to the joint kinematic results. Twelve elite Taekwondo athletes participated in this study and performed the back kick , thrashing kick , turning-back kick and roundhouse kick.
Our results indicate that the back kick utilized a combination of hip and knee extension to produce the kicking velocity, and was characterized by a pushlike movement. The thrashing kick and turning-back kick utilized a greater degree of hip abduction than the roundhouse kick and back kick , and included complicated knee motions. The new index successfully categorized the thrashing kick and turning-back kick into a push-throw continuum, indicating a change from negative index opposite direction to positive index same direction of hip and knee motions at the end of the movement.
This strategy of push-throw continuum increases the kicking velocity at the moment of impact by applying a throwlike movement pattern. Free kick goals in football. We develop and use an advanced numerical model to investigate the window of opportunity of free kicks in association football. The planar multibody forward dynamics model comprises a two segment leg model with joint actuations, a football, a wall and the turf.
Contact mechanics is defined to model Nonverbal behavior in soccer : the influence of dominant and submissive body language on the impression formation and expectancy of success of soccer players. In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language.
This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing red vs. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.
Physical characteristics that predict involvement with the ball in recreational youth soccer. Using a cross-sectional design, 80 healthy male students In conclusion, recreational adolescent players, regardless of their soccer -specific skills, may increase participation in soccer matches most through physical activities that promote improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle power and agility.
Carbohydrate ingestion improves performance of a new reliable test of soccer performance. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate CHO on soccer performance.
Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer -specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration.
The intensity of the exercise was designed to be similar to the typical activity pattern during soccer match play. Participants performed skill tests of dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting throughout the protocol. The coefficients of variation for dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting were 2. The mean combined placebo scores were CHO ingestion led to a combined agility time of There was a significant improvement in performance for dribbling, agility, and shooting p soccer performance, and ingesting CHO leads to an improvement in soccer performance.
Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars. Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: mski ua. Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework.
Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency.
The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities. Concurrent validation of an inertial measurement system to quantify kicking biomechanics in four football codes. Wearable inertial measurement systems IMS allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting.
Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error. Results were expressed in raw and standardised units for assessments of differences in means and measurement error, and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Trivial to small differences were found in linear velocities foot and pelvis , angular velocities knee, shank and thigh , sagittal joint knee and hip and segment angle shank and pelvis means mean difference: 0.
Trivial to small measurement errors from 0. The IMS demonstrated acceptable levels of concurrent validity compared to a MAS when measuring kicking biomechanics across the four football codes. Wearable IMS offers various benefits over MAS, such as, out-of-laboratory testing, larger measurement range and quick data output, to help improve the ecological validity of biomechanical testing and the timing of feedback.
The results advocate the use of IMS to quantify biomechanics of high-velocity movements in sport-specific settings. Damped Oscillator with Delta- Kicked Frequency. Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta- kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.
Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks. This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well.
The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent. Evidence supporting performance enhancing effects of kinesiotape in sports is missing. The aims of this study were to evaluate effects of kinesiotape applications with regard to shooting and throwing performance in 26 amateur soccer and 32 handball players, and to further investigate if these effects were influenced by the players' level of performance.
Ball speed as the primary outcome and accuracy of soccer kicks and handball throws were analyzed with and without kinesiotape by means of radar units and video recordings. The application of kinesiotapes significantly increased ball speed in soccer by 1. Ball velocity in handball throws also significantly increased by 1. Larger effects with respect to ball speed were found in players with a lower performance level in kicking 1.
In conclusion, the applications of kinesiotape used in this study might have beneficial effects on performance in amateur soccer , but the gain in ball speed in handball is counteracted by a significant deterioration of accuracy. Subgroup analyses indicate that kinesiotape may yield larger effects on ball velocity in athletes with lower kicking and throwing skills.
The researchers will go on extended secondments to Intel Labs Europe locations across Europe during their three-year training programme. The primary focus of the ICE-DIP researchers will be the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger a Spectral relationships between kicked Harper and on-resonance double kicked rotor operators.
Kicked Harper operators and on-resonance double kicked rotor operators model quantum systems whose semiclassical limits exhibit chaotic dynamics. Recent computational studies indicate a striking resemblance between the spectra of these operators. Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In all, 19 male junior soccer players years old were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation.
Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined. Fatigue in soccer.
This review describes when fatigue may develop during soccer games and the potential physiological mechanisms that cause fatigue in soccer. According to time? Instead, it may be related to disturbances in muscle ion homeostasis and an impaired excitation of the sarcolemma. Soccer players' ability to perform maximally is inhibited in the initial phase of the second half, which may be due to lower muscle In a hot and humid environment, dehydration and a reduced cerebral function may also contribute to the deterioration in performance.
In conclusion, fatigue or impaired performance in soccer occurs during various phases in a game, and different Mental toughness in soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions Soccer injuries in children. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than million amateur players.
Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded.
As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer , and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur.
The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. Semiclassical analysis of the kicked Rydberg atom. Full text: The kicked atom is known as the testing ground for the study of quantum chaos and proven to show the quantum localization as the scarred wavefunction while the corresponding classical counterpart shows chaotic behavior.
This apparent contradiction between the ubiquitousness of classical chaotic dynamics and the lack thereof in quantum dynamics brings into focus the open problem of a semiclassical description of quantum localization. We analyze the kicked atom using a semiclassical approximation based on Gaussian wave packets Herman-Kluk Propagator and examine the semiclassical manifestation of quantum localization.
Postural stability decreases in elite young soccer players after a competitive soccer match. To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players Morphological, maturational, functional and technical profile of young Brazilian soccer players. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the anthropometric profile, physical fitness and soccer -specific skills between under and under Brazilian soccer players, as well as to evaluate possible differences in these variables according to biological maturation in the age categories.
Anthropometric measures included weight, height and skinfolds. Biological maturation was assessed based on pubic hair development. The following tests were used for functional assessment: static and countermovement jump, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2, RAST, 5- and meter running speed, and agility T-test. Soccer -specific skills were assessed using three tests: ball control, dribbling, and kick accuracy. The results showed a larger body size stature and body mass, longer sports experience years of formal training and better performance in most of the functional tests for under soccer players compared to under players.
There were no significant differences in adiposity or soccer -specific skills between levels of competition. Significant differences as a function of maturation stage were observed in anthropometric and functional variables only in the under category. In conclusion, the under category differs from the under category in terms of anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics.
However, no difference was observed in two of the three soccer -specific skills. Physical fitness components and soccer -specific skills were associated with maturity only in the under category. Abnormal hip physical examination findings in asymptomatic female soccer athletes. Purpose Examination of the hip provides information regarding risk for pre-arthritic hip disorders, knee injuries, and low back pain. The purpose of this study was to report a hip screening examination of asymptomatic female soccer athletes and to test the hypothesis that these findings vary by competition experience.
Methods Asymptomatic females from a youth soccer club, a college, and a professional team were evaluated. Passive hip range of motion, hip abduction strength, and hip provocative tests were assessed. Results One hundred and seventy-two athletes with a mean age of Conclusion Asymptomatic elite female soccer athletes with the most competition experience had less bilateral hip flexion and preferred kicking leg IR than less-experienced athletes.
Future studies are needed to show whether these findings link to risk for intra-articular hip or lumbar spine and knee disorders. Level of evidence III. Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments.
Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms.
A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.
The Creative Soccer Platform. Creativity is essential in soccer due to the unpredictable and complex situations occurring in the game, where stereotypical play gradually loses its efficiency. Further, creativity is an important psychological factor for the development of soccer expertise, and valuing creativity increases The creative environment helped the youth players The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a jump training program, with or without haltere type handheld loading, on maximal intensity exercise performance.
Youth soccer players Athletes were evaluated for maximal-intensity performance measures before and after 6 weeks of training, during an in-season training period. Nevertheless, compared to the CG, only the LJG exhibited greater improvements in all performance tests.
Therefore, haltere type handheld loading further enhances performance adaptations during jump training in youth soccer players. Competition in Soccer Leagues. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer Soccer , or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game.
In , the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…. LS1 Report: alive and kicking! Following eleven months of meticulous maintenance and consolidation works, the LHC's extraction kicker magnets MKDs and its pulse generators are back in the accelerator for a new phase of tests. Used to dump the beam, these kicker magnets are essential for the safety of the machine.
Pulse generators for the extraction kicker magnets at Point 6. The high voltage cables leading to the magnets can be seen in red. The LHC's kicker magnets are something rather special. Unlike most of the accelerator's extraction magnets, they only operate for a short period of time and focus on providing a quick " kick " to deflect the beam. If fact, they are permanently under voltage to be ready to go, and have only 3 microseconds in order to establish their kicking pulse! This means they have to be very powerful - with the help of their own high-powered pulse generators - and extremely well in synch - with the help of control and electronic specialists.
Pulsar Kicks via Spin-1 Color Superconductivity. We propose a new neutrino propulsion mechanism for neutron stars which can lead to strong velocity kicks , needed to explain the observed bimodal velocity distribution of pulsars. The spatial asymmetry in the neutrino emission is naturally provided by a stellar core containing spin-1 color-superconducting quark matter in the A phase.
The neutrino propulsion mechanism switches on when the stellar core temperature drops below the transition temperature of this phase. Gas-rise velocities during kicks. This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a m-long, mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick.
These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum a common polymer used in drilling fluids solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions.
The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted.
Sticky orbits of a kicked harmonic oscillator. We study a Hamiltonian dynamical system consisting of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator kicked impulsively in resonance with its natural frequency, with the amplitude of the kick proportional to a sawtooth function of position. The aperiodic orbits of this system are sticky in the sense that they spend all of their time wandering pseudo-chaotically with strictly zero Lyapunov exponent in the vicinity of self-similar archipelagos of periodic islands.
The same recursive structure used locally for K gives us the asymptotic scaling features of long orbits of W on the infinite plane. For some coupling parameters the orbits remain bounded, but for others the distance from the origin increases as a logarithm or power of the time.
In the latter case, we find examples of sub-diffusive, diffusive, super-diffusive, and ballistic power-law behavior. Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick , velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up.
We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. These models describe the player, the ball, the flight of the ball before impact, the motion of the head and ball during impact, and the effects of all of these upon the intensity and the duration of acceleration of the head.
The calculated head accelerations were compared to those during presumably safe daily activities of jumping, dancing, and head nodding and also were related to established criteria for serious head injury from the motor vehicle crash literature. The results suggest heading is usually safe but occasionally dangerous, depending on key characteristics of both the player and the ball. Smaller youth players, because of their lesser body mass, are more at risk of potentially dangerous headers than are adults, even when using current youth size balls.
Lower ball inflation pressure reduces risk of dangerous head accelerations. Focus on teaching proper technique, the re-design of age-appropriate balls for young players with reduced weight and inflation pressure, and avoidance of head contact with fast, rising balls kicked at close range can substantially reduce risk of subtle brain injury in players who head soccer balls. Effect of panel shape of soccer ball on its flight characteristics.
Soccer balls are typically constructed from 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, however, newer balls named Cafusa, Teamgeist 2, and Jabulani were respectively produced from 32, 14, and 8 panels with shapes and designs dramatically different from those of conventional balls.
There have, however, been few studies on the aerodynamic properties of balls constructed from different numbers and shapes of panels. Hence, we used wind tunnel tests and a kick -robot to examine the relationship between the panel shape and orientation of modern soccer balls and their aerodynamic and flight characteristics. We observed a correlation between the wind tunnel test results and the actual ball trajectories, and also clarified how the panel characteristics affected the flight of the ball, which enabled prediction of the trajectory.
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