In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles CIP for their uses in biomedical fields. The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity.
Quantitative characterization of nanoscale polycrystalline magnets with electron magnetic circular dichroism. Electron magnetic circular dichroism EMCD allows the quantitative, element-selective determination of spin and orbital magnetic moments, similar to its well-established X-ray counterpart, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism XMCD. As an advantage over XMCD, EMCD measurements are made using transmission electron microscopes, which are routinely operated at sub-nanometre resolution, thereby potentially allowing nanometre magnetic characterization.
However, because of the low intensity of the EMCD signal, it has not yet been possible to obtain quantitative information from EMCD signals at the nanoscale. Here we demonstrate a new approach to EMCD measurements that considerably enhances the outreach of the technique. The statistical analysis introduced here yields robust quantitative EMCD signals. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetic information can be routinely obtained using electron beams of only a few nanometres in diameter without imposing any restriction regarding the crystalline order of the specimen.
Methods for characterizing magnetic footprints of perpendicular magnetic recording writer heads. In this work, the magnetic footprints, along with some of its dynamic features in recording process, of perpendicular magnetic recording writer heads have been characterized by using three different techniques. Those techniques are the spin-stand stationary footprint technique, the spin-stand dynamic footprint technique, and the coherent writing technique combined with magnetic force microscope imaging method.
The characteristics of those techniques have been compared to one another. It was found experimentally that the spin-stand stationary method could not precisely catch some peculiar recording dynamics of the write heads in certain conditions.
The advantages and disadvantages among all those techniques are also examined and discussed in detail. Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations.
Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. Makeup and uses of a basic magnet laboratory for characterizing high-temperature permanent magnets. A set of instrumentation for making basic magnetic measurements was assembled in order to characterize high intrinsic coercivity, rare earth permanent magnets with respect to short term demagnetization resistance and long term aging at temperatures up to C.
The major specialized components of this set consist of a 13 T peak field, capacitor discharge pulse magnetizer ; a 10 in. A 1 cm cubic magnet sample, carried by the paddle, fits snugly between the pole piece extensions within the electrically heated aluminum oven, where fields up to 3. A sample set of demagnetization data for the high energy Sm2Co17 type of magnet is given for temperatures up to C. These data are reduced to the temperature dependence of the M-H knee field and of the field for a given magnetic induction swing, and they are interpreted to show the limits of safe operation.
Fabrication and nanoscale characterization of magnetic multilayer nanowires. Magnetic multilayers nanowires are scientifically fascinating and have potential industrial applications in many areas of advanced nanotechnology. These applications arise due to the nanoscale dimensions of nanostructures that lead to unique physical properties.
Magnetic multilayer nanowires have been successfully produced by electrodeposition into templates. Anodic Aluminium Oxide AAO membranes were used as templates in this process; the templates were fabricated by anodization method in acidic solutions at a fixed voltage. The fabrication method of a range of magnetic multilayer nanowires is described in this study and their structure and dimensions were analyzed using scanning electron microscope SEM , Transmission electron microscope TEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy STEM.
Individual nanowires have uniform structure and regular periodicity. The magnetic and nonmagnetic layers are polycrystalline, with randomly oriented fcc lattice structure crystallites. The electrical and magnetoresistance properties of individual magnetic multilayer nanowires have been measured inside a SEM using two sharp tip electrodes attached to in situ nanomanipulators and a new electromagnet technique. The giant magnetoresistance GMR effect of individual magnetic multilayer nanowires was measured in the current - perpendicular to the plane CPP geometry using a new in situ method at variable magnetic field strength and different orientations..
Andreeva, M. The double-spiral structure starts from the surface with the almost-antiferromagnetic alignment of the adjacent Fe layers. The observation of this unusual double-spiral magnetic structure suggests that the unique properties of giant magnetoresistance devices can be further tailored using ultrathin magnetic layers.
Optical and magnetic characterization of theranostic magnetite particles Conference Presentation. Magnetic nanoparticles MNPs have a major role as contrast agent in diagnostic imaging and therapeutic monitoring. In order to research on MNP exposition, degradation and elimination of those nano composites as well as the consequences of the MNP exposition in relation with social economic relevant diseases cancer, infectious diseases , the comprehensive characterization of magnetic and structural properties is of high importance.
Within this contribution, the magnetic characterization of theranostic relevant MNPs is introduced. Employing Raman spectroscopy, the typical fingerprint information of magnetite is detected. By increasing the laser power, the transition to maghemite and hematite due to the oxidation of the magnetic core is illustrated. Moreover, IR spectroscopy is applied to characterize the coating material e.
To determine the stability of MNPs as well as the MNP's elimination under physiological conditions, different buffer systems were tested i. The investigated MNPs are stable in SBF; thus, the stability in blood after injection of the contrast agent is guaranteed. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota. Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom.
One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution.
Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin.
Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts. Magnetization reversal mechanism for Co nanoparticles revealed by a magnetic hysteresis scaling technique.
We report results of magnetic hysteresis scaling of minor loops for cobalt nanoparticles with variable mean particle size of 53 and 95 nm. A power-law scaling with an exponent of 1. The value obtained after field cooling at 5 T was lower than that after zero-field cooling, being opposite to a behavior of major-loop coercivity. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticle by dynamic light scattering.
Here we provide a complete review on the use of dynamic light scattering DLS to study the size distribution and colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles MNPs. The mathematical analysis involved in obtaining size information from the correlation function and the calculation of Z-average are introduced. Contributions from various variables, such as surface coating, size differences, and concentration of particles, are elaborated within the context of measurement data.
Comparison with other sizing techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy, revealed both the advantages and disadvantages of DLS in measuring the size of magnetic nanoparticles. The paramagnetic complexes were characterized by electronic and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray crystallography in the case of 2 and 4. We magnetically imaged the magnetic action field and optically imaged the transmembrane potentials generated by planar wavefronts on the surface of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts.
The magnetic action field images were used to produce a time series of two-dimensional action current maps. Overlaying epifluorescent images allowed us to identify a net current along the wavefront and perpendicular to gradients in the transmembrane potential. This is in contrast to a traditional uniform double-layer model where the net current flows along the gradient in the transmembrane potential.
Our findings are supported by numerical simulations that treat cardiac tissue as a bidomain with unequal anisotropies in the intra- and extracellular spaces. Our measurements reveal the anisotropic bidomain nature of cardiac tissue during plane wave propagation. These bidomain effects play an important role in the generation of the whole-heart magnetocardiogram and cannot be ignored. Octacyanoniobate IV -based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order.
Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.
Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods. We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI and Spectroscopy MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite.
High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.
Dark field imaging system for size characterization of magnetic micromarkers. In this paper we demonstrate a dark field video imaging system for the detection and size characterization of individual magnetic micromarkers suspended in liquid and the detection of pathogens utilizing magnetically labelled E. The developed detection method can be used to obtain clinical information about liquid contents when an additional biological protocol is provided, i.
Some of the major advantages of our method are the increased sizing precision in the micro- and nano-range as well as the setup's simplicity making it a perfect candidate for miniaturized devices. Measurements can thus be carried out in a quick, inexpensive, and compact manner. A minor limitation is that the concentration range of micromarkers in a liquid sample needs to be adjusted in such a manner that the number of individual particles in the microscope's field of view is sufficient.
L-arginine modified magnetic nanoparticles: green synthesis and characterization. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in Arg which is a unique, nontoxic, and biocompatible biomolecule since it can be utilized as an agent for the functionalization and subsequent stabilization of MNPs against oxidation and aggregation, during or after a synthesis procedure. Our studies demonstrate that Arg has great impacts on MNPs with the decreasing size of the particle.
Also, saturation magnetization and electrostatic interactions of RMNPs have a direct impact on biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. By controlling the concentration of Arg, it is possible to accurately control the above-mentioned characteristics, which are useful tools for applications such as connecting to antibodies, catalysis, drug loading, and modification of MNP stability.
Colorimetric analysis showed the existence of Arg in the synthesized samples. Gold and gold-iron oxide magnetic glyconanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties. The preparation, characterization and the magnetic properties of gold and gold-iron oxide glyconanoparticles GNPs are described. Glyconanoparticles were prepared in a single step procedure in the presence of aqueous solution of thiol functionalized neoglycoconjugates and either gold salts or both gold and iron salts.
Neoglycoconjugates of lactose and maltose disaccharides with different linkers were used. Iron-free gold or gold-iron oxide GNPs with controlled gold-iron ratios were obtained. The average core-size diameters are in the range of 1. Inductive plasma-atomic emission spectrometry ICP and elemental analysis gave the average number of neoglycoconjugates per cluster. The most remarkable results was the observation of a permanent magnetism up to room temperature in the iron-free gold GNPs, that was not present in the corresponding gold-iron oxide GNPs.
External magnetic fields can impact recombination yields of photoinduced electron transfer reactions by affecting the spin dynamics in transient, spin-correlated radical pair intermediates. For exciplex-forming donor—acceptor systems, this magnetic field effect MFE can be investigated sensitively by studying the delayed recombination fluorescence. In microheterogeneous environments, the MFE of the exciplex emission occurs on a faster time scale than in iso-dielectric homogeneous solvents. In addition, the local polarity reported by the exciplex is enhanced compared to homogeneous solvent mixtures of the same macroscopic permittivity.
Detailed analyses of the TR-MFE reveal that the quenching reaction directly yielding the radical ion pair is favored in microheterogeneous environments. This is in stark contrast to homogeneous media, for which the MFE predominantly involves direct formation of the exciplex, its subsequent dissociation to the magneto-sensitive radical pair, and re-encounters. These observations provide evidence for polar microdomains and enhanced caging, which are shown to have a significant impact on the reaction dynamics in microheterogeneous binary solvents.
For exciplex-forming donor-acceptor systems, this magnetic field effect MFE can be investigated sensitively by studying the delayed recombination fluorescence. The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain x km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic , domains.
The magnetic potential anomaly field also known as pseudogravity of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps. The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography.
The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features.
Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province.
On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity.
Characterization of a turbomolecular-pumped magnetic sector mass spectrometer. A Perkin Elmer MGA, turbomolecular-pumped, magnetic sector, multiple gas analyzer mass spectrometer with modified inlet for fast response was characterized for the analysis of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases. Linearity, precision, drift, detection limits and accuracy among other analytical parameters for each of the background gas were studied to evaluate the performance of the instrument.
The result demonstrates that H2S2 mass spectrometer is a stable instrument and can be utilized for the quantitative analytical determination of hydrogen, helium, oxygen and argon in nitrogen and helium background gases. Oleic acid coated magnetic nano-particles: Synthesis and characterizations. The particle size obtained from width of Bragg peak is about Structural and magnetic characterization of Ti doped cobalt ferrite CoFe2O4.
Synthesis of Co1-xTixFe2O4 solid solutions for 0. XRD confirmed that Cobalt Ferrite spinel cubic structure in all prepared samples. SEM micrograph shows good grain growth in all samples. Magnetic Study reveals that the M-H curves of all the prepared samples taken at room temperature are very well saturated.
Coercivity does not show any regular variation with increase in the molar concentration of Ti in CoFe2O4 at A-site. A hybrid superconductor magnet bearing uses magnetic forces between permanent magnets to provide lift and the flux pinning force between permanent magnets and superconductors to stabilize against instabilities intrinsic to the magnetic force between magnets.
We have constructed a prototype kinetic energy storage system, using a hybrid superconductor magnet bearing to support a 42 lb. With five sensors on the periphery of the flywheel, we have monitored the position and attitude of the flywheel during its spin down.
The results indicate low values of stiffnesses for the bearing. The implications of this and other consequences will be discussed. Magnetic , in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section. Magnetic images of Chelyabinsk meteorite's fragment F1 removed from Chebarkul lake thin section have been unraveled by a magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering YSE capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to mT range from about 0.
Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence Bcr for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised.
Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses. Bcr of magnetic sources in Chelyabinsk meteorite ranges between 4 and 7 mT. These magnetic sources enter their saturation states when applying 40 mT external magnetic field pulse. Eddy current-shielded x-space relaxometer for sensitive magnetic nanoparticle characterization.
Bauer, L. The development of magnetic particle imaging MPI has created a need for optimized magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic particle relaxometry is an excellent tool for characterizing potential tracers for MPI. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of a high-throughput tabletop relaxometer that is able to make sensitive measurements of MPI tracers without the need for a dedicated shield room. Following stroke, the brain undergoes various stages of recovery where the central nervous system can reorganize neural circuitry neuroplasticity both spontaneously and with the aid of behavioral rehabilitation and non-invasive brain stimulation.
Multiple neuroimaging techniques can characterize common structural and functional stroke-related deficits, and importantly, help predict recovery of function. Diffusion tensor imaging DTI typically reveals increased overall diffusivity throughout the brain following stroke, and is capable of indexing the extent of white matter damage.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy MRS provides an index of metabolic changes in surviving neural tissue after stroke, serving as a marker of brain function. The neural correlates of altered brain activity after stroke have been demonstrated by abnormal activation of sensorimotor cortices during task performance, and at rest, using functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI.
Electroencephalography EEG has been used to characterize motor dysfunction in terms of increased cortical amplitude in the sensorimotor regions when performing upper limb movement, indicating abnormally increased cognitive effort and planning in individuals with stroke. Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS work reveals changes in ipsilesional and contralesional cortical excitability in the sensorimotor cortices. The severity of motor deficits indexed using TMS has been linked to the magnitude of activity imbalance between the sensorimotor cortices.
Approaches that delineate the best measures with which to predict or positively alter outcomes will be highlighted. Spindly cobalt ferrite nanocrystals: preparation, characterization and magnetic properties. Furthermore, we found that other ferrite nanocrystals with a needle-like shape, such as zinc ferrite ZnFe 2 O 4 and nickel ferrite NiFe 2 O 4 , can be prepared by the same process.
Needle-shaped CoFe 2 O 4 nanocrystals dispersed in an aqueous solution containing oleic acid exhibit excellent stability and the formed colloid does not produce any precipitations after two months, which is of prime importance if these materials are applied in magnetic fluids. X-ray diffraction XRD measurements were used to characterize the phase and component of the co-precipitation products, and demonstrate that they are spinel ferrite with a cubic symmetry.
Varying the concentration of oleic acid did not bring about any obvious influence on the size distribution and shapes of CoFe 2 O 4. Earth and Mercury are the only terrestrial planets in our solar system with present-day magnetic dipole fields generated by internal dynamo systems. In contrast, Mars and the Moon show evidence of past dipole fields in the form of crustal magnetic anomalies; to hold measurable magnetizations , crustal materials must have been exposed to an applied field.
While the physical principles of magnetic recording are consistent between terrestrial planets, the particular conditions at each planet control the mechanisms by which crustal materials may be magnetized and limit the types of minerals that can retain magnetic remanence.
As the suite of magnetic materials used for studies of remanence expands, the need for new methods follows. The integration of rock magnetic techniques with microscopy and chemical analyses enables the reconstruction of increasingly comprehensive narratives of remanence acquisition and alteration, even in materials that are challenging to study using traditional methods. This thesis demonstrates the utility of a materials approach to rock magnetism by applying techniques designed for terrestrial use in a planetary context.
The first of two case studies focuses on calcite cave deposits as a means to demonstrate how novel techniques can be used to unlock previously inaccessible archives of magnetic information. Tandem magnetic and microscopic analyses improve our understanding of the rock magnetic properties of weakly magnetic stalagmites and their potential for paleomagnetic research, as well as illuminating the pathways of remanence acquisition in cave systems.
These anomalies are consistent with remanence acquired in a dipole field. However, in the absence of physical samples, the types of magnetic minerals that could be holding remanence in Mercury's hot, highly reducing surface environment have not yet been determined. Orbital data is. In this work, a 3D printed polymer—metal soft- magnetic composite was developed and characterized for its material, structural, and functional properties. The material comprises acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS as the polymer matrix, with up to 40 vol.
The composites were rheologically analyzed and 3D printed into tensile and flexural test specimens using a commercial desktop 3D printer. Magnetic hysteresis characterization revealed retentivities of up to In this work, a 3D printed polymer-metal soft- magnetic composite was developed and characterized for its material, structural, and functional properties. Mechanical characterization revealed a linearly decreasing trend of the ultimate tensile strength UTS and a sharp decrease in Young's modulus with increasing filler content.
Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia. Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field.
These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction inclination and direction. The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested.
The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material magnetite in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration. Russo, A. The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, .
The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film.
The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics. Quantitative interpretation of magnetic properties as a way to characterize biogeophysical signatures of biodegraded contaminated sites. Magnetic minerals in soils and rocks are one way to study biogechemical and paleoenvironmental processes. The ultrafine fraction of these minerals superparmagnetic SP and stable single domain SSD are usually investigated in environmental magnetism studies, since changes in mineralogy, concentration, size and morphology of the magnetic grains can be related to biogeochemical processes.
In this study, we use low-field frequency dependent susceptibility FDS and isothermal remanent magnetization IRM to characterize the magnetic properties of materials in environmental magnetism. Magnetic susceptibility MS measurements are frequently used as a proxy of magnetic minerals present in soils and rocks.
MS is a complex function of magnetic mineralogy and grain size, as well as magnitude and frequency of the applied field. This work presents a method for inverting low-field FDS data. The inverted parameters can be interpreted in terms of grain size variations of magnetic particles on the SP-SSD transition. This work also presents a method for inverting IRM demagnetization curves, to obtain the saturation magnetization , the individual magnetic moment for an assemblage of ultrafine SP minerals and estimate the concentration of magnetic carriers.
IRM magnetization curves can be interpreted as resulting from distinct contributions of different mineral phases, which can be described by Cummulative Log-Gaussian CLG distributions. Each acquisition curve provides fundamental parameters that are characteristic of the respective mineral phase.
The CLG decomposition is widely used in an interpretation procedure named mineral unmixing. In this work we present an inversion method for mineral unmixing, implementing the genetic algorithm to find the parameters of distinct components. These methodologies have been tested by synthetic models and applied to data from environmental magnetism studies. In this work we apply the proposed methodologies to characterize the magnetic. Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation.
The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity.
The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils. The electromagnetic environment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems. Occupational exposure assessment reveals RF harmonics. Gourzoulidis, G. Moreover, the complex MRI environment will be finally excluded from the implementation of the new occupational limits, leading to an increased demand for Occupational Health and Safety OHS surveillance.
The gradient function of MRI systems and the application of the RF excitation frequency result in low and high frequency exposures, respectively. This electromagnetic field exposure, in combination with the increased static magnetic field exposure, makes the MRI environment a unique case of combined EMF exposure. The electromagnetic field levels in close proximity of different MRI systems have been assessed at various frequencies. Preliminary results show initial compliance with the forthcoming limits in each different frequency band, but also revealed peculiar RF harmonic components, of no safety concern, to the whole range detected MHz.
Further work is needed in order to clarify their origin and characteristics. Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of materials. Eddy current impedance measuring methods have been applied to study the effect that magnetically treated materials have on service life extension. Eddy current impedance measurements have been performed on Nickel specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening.
It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in a material's electromagnetic properties and does exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic -field processing effect on machine tool service life.
Characterization of the in situ magnetic architecture of oceanic crust Hess Deep using near-source vector magnetic data. Tominaga, Masako; Tivey, Maurice A. Johan; Shillington, Donna J. Marine magnetic anomalies are a powerful tool for detecting geomagnetic polarity reversals, lithological boundaries, topographic contrasts, and alteration fronts in the oceanic lithosphere. Our aim here is to detect lithological contacts in fast-spreading lower crust and shallow mantle by characterizing magnetic anomalies and investigating their origins.
Ten magnetic profiles were collected up the slope using a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer mounted on ROV Isis. We develop and extend the vertical magnetic profile VMP approach of Tivey by incorporating, for the first time, a three-dimensional vector analysis, leading to what we here termed as "vector vertical magnetic profiling" approach.
We calculate the source magnetization distribution, the deviation from two dimensionality, and the strike of magnetic boundaries using both the total field Fourier-transform inversion approach and a modified differential vector magnetic analysis. Overall, coherent, long-wavelength total field anomalies are present with a strong magnetization contrast between the upper and lower parts of the slope.
The total field anomalies indicate a coherently magnetized source at depth. The upper part of the slope is weakly magnetized and magnetic structure follows the underlying slope morphology, including a "bench" and lobe. The increase in tight reservoir exploitation projects causes producing many papers each year on new, modern, and modified methods and techniques on estimating characteristics of these reservoirs.
The most ambiguous of all basic reservoir property estimations deals with permeability. One of the logging methods that is advertised to predict permeability but is always met by skepticism is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR. The ability of NMR to differentiate between bound and movable fluids and providing porosity increased the capability of NMR as a permeability prediction technique. This leads to a multitude of publications and the motivation of a review paper on this subject by Babadagli et al.
The first part of this presentation is dedicated to an extensive review of the existing correlation models for NMR based estimates of tight reservoir permeability to update this topic. On the second part, the collected literature information is used to analyze new experimental data. The data are collected from tight reservoirs from Canada, the Middle East, and China.
A case study is created to apply NMR measurement in the prediction of reservoir characterization parameters such as porosity, permeability, cut-offs, irreducible saturations etc. Moreover, permeability correlations are utilized to predict permeability. NMR experiments were conducted on water saturated cores. NMR T2 relaxation times were measured. The correlation coefficients were computed based on multiple regression analysis. Results are cross plots of NMR permeability versus the independently measured Klinkenberg corrected permeability.
More complicated equations are discussed. Error analysis of models is presented and compared. This presentation is beneficial in understanding existing tight reservoir permeability models. The results can be used as a guide for choosing.
Characterization of magnetic flux density in passive sources used in magnetic stimulation. The spatial distribution of the magnetic flux density B was determined for the passive sources of magnetic field most used in magnetic stimulation of biological systems, toroidal dipole magnets and cylindrical dipole magnets , in order to find the spatial characteristics of the magnetic field within the volumes of interest for the treatment of biological systems.
The perpendicular and parallel components of B regarding the polar surface of the magnets were measured, for which a FW Bell digital teslameter was used with longitudinal and transverse probes and a two-dimensional positioning system with millimeter scale. The relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in high-energy permanent magnets characterized by polytwinned structures.
This report summarizes the results of a study of the relationship between microstructure and magnetic properties in a unique genre of ferromagnetic material characterized by a polysynthetically twinned structure which arises during solid state transformation. These results stem from the work over a period of approximately 27 months of a nominal 3 year grant period.
The report also contains a proposal to extend the research project for an additional 3 years. The polytwinned structures produce an inhomogeneous magnetic medium in which the easy axis of magnetization varies quasi-periodically giving rise to special domain configurations which are expected to markedly influence the mechanism of magnetization reversal and hysteresis behavior of these materials in bulk or thin films.
The extraordinary permanent magnet properties exhibited by the well-known Co-Pt alloys as well as the Fe-Pt and Fe-Pd systems near the equiatomic composition derive from the formation of a polytwinned microstructure. Preparation and characterization of supported magnetic nanoparticles prepared by reverse micelles. Summary Monatomic Fe, Co and bimetallic FePt and CoPt nanoparticles were prepared by exploiting the self-organization of precursor loaded reverse micelles.
Achievements and limitations of the preparation approach are critically discussed. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the particle arrays were characterized by several techniques to give a comprehensive view of the high quality of the method. For Co nanoparticles, it is demonstrated that magnetostatic interactions can be neglected for distances which are at least 6 times larger than the particle diameter.
Focus is placed on FePt alloy nanoparticles which show a huge magnetic anisotropy in the L10 phase, however, this is still less by a factor of 3—4 when compared to the anisotropy of the bulk counterpart. A similar observation was also found for CoPt nanoparticles NPs. These results are related to imperfect crystal structures as revealed by HRTEM as well as to compositional distributions of the prepared particles.
Interestingly, the results demonstrate that the averaged effective magnetic anisotropy of FePt nanoparticles does not strongly depend on size. Consequently, magnetization stability should scale linearly with the volume of the NPs and give rise to a critical value for stability at ambient temperature. Finally, the long-term conservation of nanoparticles by Au photoseeding is presented.
Total recovered mass: The only recovered South-Ural glass A-1 was found near Magnitogorsk 90 g . In spite of previous works , the magnetic properties of urengoites and South-Ural glass remain unknown. Here we present a comprehensive magnetic characterization for all three currently known urengoite specimens and the only discovered South-Ural glass.
Rock magnetic investigations revealed the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals in all samples. SIRM values and non-isotropic susceptibility demonstrate a composite ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic origin of susceptibility. This research has. On the role of magnetic field intensity for better micro-structural characterization during Barkhausen Noise analysis. Barkhausen Noise analysis is a popular and preferred technique for micro-structural characterization.
The root mean square value and peak value of Barkhausen Noise burst are important parameters to assess the micro-hardness and residual stress. Barkhausen Noise burst can be enveloped using a curve known as Barkhausen Noise profile.
Peak position of profile changes with change in micro-structure. In the present work, raw signal of Barkhausen Noise burst was obtained from Ni based sample at various magnetic field intensity to observe the effect of variation in field intensity on Barkhausen Noise burst. Barkhausen Noise analysis parameters such as magnetizing frequency, number of burst, high pass and low pass filter frequency were kept constant and magnetizing field was varied in wide range between Oe to Oe.
The processed profiles of Barkhausen Noise burst obtained at various magnetizing field intensity clearly reveals requirement of optimum magnetic field strength for better characterization of micro-structure. Obtaining reliable estimates of the absolute palaeointensity of the Earth's magnetic field is notoriously difficult. Many methods to obtain paleointensities from suitable records such as lavas and archeological artifacts involve heating the samples.
These heating steps are believed to induce ' magnetic alteration' - a process that is still poorly understood but prevents obtaining correct paleointensity estimates. To observe this magnetic alteration directly we imaged the magnetic domain state of titanomagnetite particles - a common carrier of the magnetic remanence in samples used for paleointensity studies.
We selected samples from the flow of Mt. Etna from a site that systematically yields underestimates of the known intensity of the paleofield - in spite of rigorous testing by various groups. Magnetic Force Microscope images were taken before and after a heating step typically used in absolute palaeointensity experiments.
Before heating, the samples feature distinct, blocky domains that sometimes seem to resemble a classical magnetite domain structure. Furthermore, these structures appeared to be unstable over time: after one-year storage in a magnetic field-free environment the domain states evolved into a viscous remanent magnetization state. Our observations may qualitatively explain reported underestimates from technically successful paleointensity experiments for this site and other sites reported previously.
Furthermore the occurrence of intriguing observations such as 'the drawer storage effect' by Shaar et al EPSL, , and viscous magnetizations observed by Muxworthy and Williams JGR, may be partially explained by our observations. The major implications of our study for all palaeointensity methods involving heating may be.
This study investigates the design and fabrication of magnetic microsensors using the commercial 0. The magnetic sensor is composed of springs and interdigitated electrodes, and it is actuated by the Lorentz force. The finite element method FEM software CoventorWare is adopted to simulate the displacement and capacitance of the magnetic sensor. A post-CMOS process is utilized to release the suspended structure. The post-process uses an anisotropic dry etching to etch the silicon dioxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate.
When a magnetic field is applied to the magnetic sensor, it generates a change in capacitance. A sensing circuit is employed to convert the capacitance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the magnetic microsensor varies from 0. Performance characterization of a permanent- magnet helicon plasma thruster. Helicon plasma thrusters operated at a few kWs of rf power is an active area of an international research.
Recent experiments have clarified part of the thrust-generation mechanisms. Thrust components which have been identified include an electron pressure inside the source region and a Lorentz force due to an electron diamagnetic drift current and a radial component of the applied magnetic field. The use of permanent magnets PMs instead of solenoids is one of the solutions for improving the thruster efficiency because it does not require electricity for the magnetic nozzle formation.
Here the thrust imparted from a permanent- magnet helicon plasma thruster is directly measured using a pendulum thrust balance. The source consists of permanent magnet PM arrays, a double turn rf loop antenna powered by a The PM arrays provide a magnetic nozzle near the open exit of the source and two configurations, which have maximum field strengths of about and G, are tested.
A thrust of 15 mN, specific impulse of sec and a thrust efficiency of 8 percent are presently obtained for 2 kW of input power, 24 sccm flow rate of argon and the stronger magnetic field configuration. Such large and well preserved population offers a good opportunity to test and develop a magnetic classification procedure, in parallel to mineralogical and geochemical characterization.
Nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention in recent research due to their wide applications in various fields such as material science, physical science, electrical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Researchers have developed many methods for synthesizing different types of nanostructures and have further applied them in various applications.
However, in many cases, a molecular level understanding of nanoparticles and their associated surface chemistry is lacking investigation. Understanding the surface chemistry of nanomaterials is of great significance for obtaining a better understanding of the properties and functions of the nanomaterials.
Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy can provide a familiar means of looking at the molecular structure of molecules bound to surfaces of nanomaterials as well as a method to determine the size of nanoparticles in solution. Here, a combination of NMR spectroscopic techniques including one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies was used to investigate the surface chemistry and physical properties of some common nanomaterials, including for example, thiol-protected gold nanostructures and biomolecule-capped silica nanoparticles.
Silk is a natural protein fiber that features unique properties such as excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and non-linear optical properties. These appealing physical properties originate from the silk structure, and therefore, the structural analysis of silk is of great importance for revealing the mystery of these impressive properties and developing novel silk-based biomaterials as well. Here, solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to elucidate the secondary structure of silk proteins in N.
Temporal lobe abnormalities in semantic processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. We tested the hypothesis that psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in semantic processing of linguistic information. Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI was used to elucidate and characterize the neural architecture underlying lexico-semantic processes in criminal psychopathic individuals and in a group of matched control participants.
Participants performed a lexical decision task in which blocks of linguistic stimuli alternated with a resting baseline condition. In each lexical decision block, the stimuli were either concrete words and pseudowords or abstract words and pseudowords. Consistent with our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals, relative to controls, showed poorer behavioral performance for processing abstract words.
Analysis of the fMRI data for both groups indicated that processing of word stimuli, compared with the resting baseline condition, was associated with neural activation in bilateral fusiform gyrus, anterior cingulate, left middle temporal gyrus, right posterior superior temporal gyrus, and left and right inferior frontal gyrus. Analyses confirmed our prediction that psychopathic individuals would fail to show the appropriate neural differentiation between abstract and concrete stimuli in the right anterior temporal gyrus and surrounding cortex.
The results are consistent with other studies of semantic processing in psychopathy and support the theory that psychopathy is associated with right hemisphere abnormalities for processing conceptually abstract material. Characterizing superconducting thin films using AC Magnetic Susceptibility. Microwaves absorption in superconducting materials.
Microwaves absorption measures in two superconductors ceramics systems, Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O are compared with similars datas obtained in the same band of temperature by a conventional method, mutual inductance. The results suggest that the microwaves absorption can be used as single and non-destructive method for investigating the properties of ceramics superconductors.
A level set-based topology optimization method incorporating a fictitious interface energy is used to find optimized configurations of the ferrite material. The numerical results demonstrate that the optimization successfully found an appropriate ferrite configuration that functions as an electromagnetic This paper presents a structural optimization method for the design of an electromagnetic cloak made of ferrite material.
Ferrite materials exhibit a frequency-dependent degree of permeability, due to a magnetic resonance phenomenon that can be altered by changing the magnitude of an externally Postirradiation thermocyclic loading of ferritic -martensitic structural materials. Thermonuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak-type will be unique power engineering plants to operate in thermocyclic mode only. Ferritic -martensitic stainless steels are prime candidate structural materials for test blankets of the ITER fusion reactor.
Beyond the radiation damage, thermomechanical cyclic loading is considered as the most detrimental lifetime limiting phenomenon for the above structure. With a Russian and a German facility for thermal fatigue testing of neutron irradiated materials a cooperation has been undertaken. Ampule devices to irradiate specimens for postirradiation thermal fatigue tests have been developed by the Russian partner. A description of the irradiation facility, the qualification of the ampule device and the modification of the German thermal fatigue facility will be presented.
Path E alloys: ferritic material development for magnetic fusion energy applications. The application of ferritic materials in irradiation environments has received greatly expanded attention in the last few years, both internationally and in the United States. Ferritic materials are found to be resistant to irradiation damage and have in many cases superior properties to those of AISI It has been shown that for magnetic fusion energy applications the low thermal expansion behavior of the ferritic alloy class will result in lower thermal stresses during reactor operation, leading to significantly longer ETF operating lifetimes.
The Magnetic Fusion Energy Program therefore now includes a ferritic alloy option for alloy selection and this option has been designated Path E. We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material.
To minimize the signal degradation, many electronic devices require efficient microwave absorbers with very low reflection-losses within the X-band. The composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, a vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, and a vector network analyzer. The average size of the prepared barium-natural ferrite particles was estimated to be between 0. The use of ferritic materials in light water reactor power plants. This paper reviews the use of ferritic materials in LWR power plant components.
The evolution of the construction materials , including plates and forgings, is presented. The fabrication process for both reactors constructed with plates and forgings are described in detail. Typical mechanical properties of the reactor vessel materials are presented. Finally, one critical issue radiation embrittlement dealing with ferritic materials is discussed. This has been one of the major issues regarding the use of ferritic material in the construction of LWR pressure vessels.
Study on preparation and microwave absorption property of the core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La. Microwave absorbing material plays a great role in electromagnetic pollution controlling, electromagnetic interference shielding and stealth technology, etc. The core-nanoshell composite materials doped with La were prepared by a solid-state reaction method, which is applied to the electromagnetic wave absorption. The core is magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere, and the shell is the nanosized ferrite doped with La.
The thermal decomposition process of the sample was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The morphology and components of the composite materials were investigated by the X-ray diffraction analysis, the microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer analysis indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction happens between ferrite of magnetic fly-ash hollow cenosphere and nanosized ferrite coating, which caused outstanding magnetic properties.
The microwave absorbing property of the sample was measured by reflectivity far field radar cross section of radar microwave absorbing material with vector network analyzer. The results indicated that the exchange-coupling interaction enhanced magnetic loss of composite materials. Therefore, in the frequency of 5 GHz, the reflection coefficient can achieve dB. It is better than single material and is consistent with requirements of the microwave absorbing material at the low-frequency absorption.
Published by Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Removal of radioactive materials from waste solutions via magnetic ferrites. Ferrite waste treatment was found to be effective in removing actinides from simulated Rocky Flats process waste solutions. In addition, siginficantly less solid was produced as compared with the flocculant precipitation technique now employed at Rocky Flats.
Aging of ferrite solids and elevated beryllium and phosphate concentrations were identified as interferences in the ferrite treatment of process waste, but neither appeeared serious enough to prevent implementation in plant operations. Cavity magnon polaritons with lithium ferrite and three-dimensional microwave resonators at millikelvin temperatures.
Single crystal lithium ferrite LiFe spheres of sub-mm dimension are examined at mK temperatures, microwave frequencies, and variable dc magnetic field, for use in hybrid quantum systems and condensed matter and fundamental physics experiments. Strong coupling regimes of the photon-magnon interaction cavity magnon polariton quasiparticles were observed with coupling strength of up to MHz at 9.
We show that the photon-magnon coupling can be significantly improved and exceed that of the widely used yttrium iron garnet crystal, due to the small unit cell of LiFe, allowing twice the spins per unit volume. Magnon mode softening was observed at low dc fields and, combined with the normal Zeeman effect, creates magnon spin-wave modes that are insensitive to first-order magnetic-field fluctuations. This effect is observed in the Kittel mode at 5.
We show that if the cavity is tuned close to this frequency, the magnon polariton particles exhibit an enhanced range of strong coupling and insensitivity to magnetic field fluctuations with both first-order and second-order insensitivity to magnetic field as a function of frequency double magic point clock transition , which could potentially be exploited in cavity QED experiments.
Basic fracture toughness requirements for ferritic materials of nuclear class pressure retaining equipment in NPP. In this paper, theory basis on cold brittleness and anti-brittle fracture design of ferritic materials are introduced summarily and fracture toughness requirements for ferritic materials in ASME code for nuclear safety class pressure retaining equipment in NPP are summarized and evaluated. The results show that notch impact toughness requirements for materials relate to nuclear safety class of materials so as to ensure that brittle fracture of retaining pressure boundary in NPP can not occur.
Glass additive influence on the sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave magnetic properties of Cu-Bi-Zn co-doped Co2Z ferrites. The glass wetting characteristics on the Co 2 Z ferrite surface, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and a dilatometer were used to examine the BB35SZ glass effect on Co 2 Z ferrite densification and the chemical reaction between the glass and Co 2 Z ferrites.
The results indicate that BB35SZ glass can be used as a sintering aid to reduce the densification temperature of Co 2 Z ferrites from to o C. This process provides a promising candidate for multilayer chip magnetic devices for microwave applications. The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites , Ba O. These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3. The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO 3 product of Merck, and BaCO 4 which is commercially available in the market as barite.
Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, SUMI. Tunable microwave absorbing nano- material for X-band applications. The particle size measured by Scherer formula for all the samples varies in the range of 54— nm and confirmed by the TEM analysis. The average grain size measured by SEM analysis lies in the range of 0.
The Gd-substituted ferrite has higher value of coercivity Furthermore, the minimum value of reflection loss shifts towards the lower and higher frequencies with the substitution of rare earth elements which confirms that the microwave absorption properties can be tuned with the substitution of rare earth elements in pure ferrites.
The peak value of attenuation constant at higher frequency agrees well the reflection loss data. Microwave reactor for utilizing waste materials. Full Text Available The paper presents a designed and manufactured, semi-industrial microwave reactor for thermal utilization of asbestos-bearing wastes. Presented are also semi-industrial tests of utilizing such wastes. It was found that microwave heating can be applied for utilizing asbestos with use of suitable wetting agents.
Analysis of the neutralization process indicates a possibility of presenting specific, efficient and effective process parameters of utilizing some asbestos-bearing industrial wastes. Finite element analysis of multi-layer planar structures with Ferrite. Electromagnetic Analysis of microwave integrated circuits is an attractive subject do to the recent development and use of new materials such as magnetic anisotropic materials hexaferrite, These materials are used in many microwave components Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris maleato.
Viswanathan and Murthy , ferrites have opened a new vista in the field of chemical physics of materials. Keeping in view these technological applications, ferrites have been regarded as an important New technique for enhancing helium production in ferritic materials.
The helium excess increases systematically with neutron exposure, suggesting a transmutation-driven process. The extra helium may be produced in two different ways, either by fast neutron reactions on the transmuted isotopes of iron or by a thermal neutron reaction with the radioactive isotope 55 Fe.
Radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements of the iron isotopes composing the irradiated samples have been used to determine limits on the cross sections for each process. Either of these processes can be used to enhance helium production in ferritic materials during irradiations in mixed-spectrum reactors by isotopically enriching the samples.
Further work is needed to clarify the reaction mechanisms and helium production cross sections. Our measurements determined the thermal neutron total absorption cross section of 55 Fe to be Foletto, E. The catalytic behavior of composite material was evaluated by the degradation of Amaranth dye in the photo-Fenton reaction under visible light irradiation. The overall results showed that the prepared composite was successfully synthesized, demonstrating good performance in the dye degradation, with higher degradation rate compared to the NiFe2O4.
The ferrite is synthesized by sol-gel technique. Then, the polymer is deposited by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The functional characterization is performed by measuring the dc-conductivity and microwave absorption characteristics in the X-band.
The absorbers exhibit broad bandwidths under dB ranging from 2. The absorber of 3. Full Text Available Performance evaluation is an important aspect in the study of microwave -absorbing material coatings. The reflectivity of the incident wave is usually taken as the performance indicator.
There have been various methods to directly or indirectly measure the reflectivity, but existing methods are mostly cumbersome and require a strict testing environment. What is more, they cannot be applied to field measurement. In this paper, we propose a scheme to achieve field performance evaluation of microwave -absorbing materials , which adopts a small H-plane sectoral horn antenna as the testing probe and a small microwave reflectometer as the indicator.
When the size of the H-plane sectoral horn antenna is specially designed, the field distribution at the antenna aperture can be approximated as a plane wave similar to the far field of the microwave emitted by a radar unit. Therefore, the reflectivity can be obtained by a near-field measurement. We conducted experiments on a kind of ferrite -based microwave -absorbing material at X band 8.
The experimental results show that the reflectivity is in agreement with the reference data measured by the conventional method as a whole. Evaluation of superparamagnetic and biocompatible properties of mesoporous silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via microwave modified Pechini method. Gharibshahian, M. The microwave calcined sample was coated with mesoporous silica by hydrothermal method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay with 3T3 fibroblast cells.
For microwave calcination, The XRD and SEM results demonstrated smaller and flat adhesion forms of nanoparticles with the average size of 15 nm. Moreover, the BET results confirmed the formation of mesoporous coating with the average pore diameters of 2. Microwave calcined nanoparticles had the best structural and magnetic properties. Precision microwave applicators and systems for plasma and materials processing. Modern applications of microwave energy have imposed new requirements upon microwave processing systems.
Interest in energy efficiency, processing uniformity and control of process cycles has placed new design conditions upon microwave power oscillators, microwave systems and microwave applicator design. One approach of meeting new application requirements is the use of single-mode or controlled multimode applicators. The use of a single-mode applicator for plasma generation and materials processing will be presented. Descriptions of actual applicator designs for heating, curing, and processing of solid materials and the generations of high and low pressure discharges will be given.
The impact of these applicators on the total microwave system including the microwave power source will be described. Specific examples of applicator and associated microwave systems will be detailed for the applications of 1 plasma thin film deposition and 2 the precision processing and diagnosis of materials.
Methods of process control and diagnosis, control of process uniformity and process scale up are discussed. Material physical properties of 12 chromium ferritic steel. High chromium ferritic steel is an attractive candidate for structural material of the next Fast Breeder Reactor, since both of thermal properties and high temperature strength of the steel are superior to those of conventional austenitic stainless steels.
In this study, physical properties of 12Cr steels are measured and compared to those obtained in the previous studies to discuss about stochastic dispersions. The effect of measurement technique on Young's modulus and the influence of the specimen size on coefficient of thermal expansion are also investigated. The following conclusions are obtained. Such a discrepancy is resulted from the difference in measurement technique.
It was clarified that Young's modulus obtained by free vibration method is more adequate those obtained by the cantilever characteristic vibration method. Therefore, the authors recommend using the values obtained by free vibration method as Young's modulus of 12Cr steels. However, the obviously different values are obtained from the measurement by large size specimens. Such a discrepancy is resulted from heterogeneous during heating process of the specimens.
Comparison of material property specifications of ferritic steels in fast-breeder reactor technology. The component fabrications for the fast breeder reactors request the use of ferritic steels specially appropriated for the construction of the equipments sustaining pressure and high temperature. The Activity Group nr 3 Materials of the FRCC has decided to make a study to compare the different norms related to the properties of somme ferritic steels used in the different European fast breeder projects.
In particular, this study should allow in the different countries of the Community, to identify the designation of a specific steel and to compare its properties. Deviations between the different norms of a same material are mentioned to facilitate European standardization of this type of material.
Dielectric properties of materials at microwave frequencies. Full Text Available The paper introduces the review of the present state of art in the measurement of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with different kinds of materials.
The electromagnetic field consists of two components: electric and magnetic field. The influence of these components on materials is different. The influence of the magnetic field is negligible and it has no impact on practical use. Experiments focused on the evaluation of the complex dielectric permitivity of different materials have been performed.
The permitivity of solid material is also measurable by phasemethod, when the specimen is a part of transmission sub-circuit. Microwave instrument for complex permittivity measurement works in X frequency band 8. The extensive number of experimental data have been obtained for different materials. Structural characterization of ferrite nanoparticles and composite materials using synchrotron radiation. Albuquerque, A. During the last decade nanocrystalline magnetic materials have been widely studied due to the multiple technological applications.
Amongst the magnetic materials of major technological interest are the soft magnetic ferrites and the granular solids formed by ferrites dispersed in non-magnetic matrices. It is a well known fact that the magnetic properties of these materials , such as coercivity, magnetic saturation and magnetization, depend on the shape, size and size distribution of the nanoparticles.
For this reason, the general purpose of this work was to obtain structural information on ferrite nanoparticles NiFe 2 O 4 and NiZnFe 2 O 4 and granular solids obtained by dispersion of these particles in non magnetic matrices, like SiO 2 and SnO 2. The ferrite samples were prepared by co-precipitation and heat treated between and deg. Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade.
It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors.
Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium.
To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years.
High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials , which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years.
Kim, Yeong H. Microwave assisted solid state reaction method: Investigations on electrical and magnetic properties NiMgZn ferrites. X-ray diffraction study reveals formation of single phase spinel cubic structure. Fourier-transform infrared spectra are recorded to locate octahedral and tetrahedral sites.
Low coercivity of 1. Development of microwave absorbing materials prepared from a polymer binder including Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin. Microwave absorption composites were synthesized from a poly urushiol epoxy resin PUE mixed with one of microwave absorbing materials ; Ni-Zn ferrite , Soot, Black lead, and carbon nano tube CNT to investigate their microwave absorption properties. PUE binders were specially made from Japanese lacquer and epoxy resin, where Japanese lacquer has been traditionally used for bond and paint because it has excellent beauty.
Japanese lacquer solidifies with oxygen contained in air's moisture, which has difficulty in making composite, but we improved Japanese lacquer's solidification properties by use of epoxy resin. We made 10 mm thickness composite samples and cut them into toroidal shape to measure permittivity, permeability, and reflection loss in frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 20 GHz. Electric magnetic absorber's composites synthesized from a PUE binders mixed either with Soot or CNT showed significantly higher wave absorption over dB than the others at frequencies around 18 GHz, although Japanese lacquer itself doesn't affect absorption.
This means Japanese lacquer can be used as binder materials for microwave absorbers. Trends of microwave dielectric materials for antenna application. Rapid development of a modern microwave communication system requires a high quality microwave dielectric ceramic material to be used as mobile and satellite communication. High permittivity of dielectric ceramics leads to fabrication of compact device for electronic components.
This paper review of various dielectric ceramic materials used as microwave dielectric materials and related parameters for antenna applications. Sulong, T. Magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of ferrite material.
A magnetically controlled multifrequency invisibility cloak with a single shell of the isotropic and homogeneous ferrite material has been investigated based on the scattering cancellation method from the Mie scattering theory. The analytical and simulated results have demonstrated that such this shell can drastically reduce the total scattering cross-section of this cloaking system at multiple frequencies.
These multiple cloaking frequencies of this shell can be externally controlled since the magnetic permeability of ferrites is well tuned by the applied magnetic field. This may provide a potential way to design a tunable multifrequency invisibility cloak with considerable flexibility. Ferritic and martensitic steels are finding increased application for structural components in several reactor systems.
Low-alloy steels have long been used for pressure vessels in light water fission reactors. Martensitic stainless steels are finding increasing usage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and are being considered for fusion reactor applications when such systems become commercially viable.
Recent efforts have evaluated the applicability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels. Experiments on the effect of irradiation on these steels provide several examples where contributions are being made to materials science and engineering. Examples are given demonstrating improvements in basic understanding, small specimen test procedure development, and alloy development. Optimization principles for preparation methods and properties of fine ferrite materials.
The paper is devoted to the problems of development of fine materials based on Ba- ferrite for vertical magnetic recording in particular. Taking an analogue — BaFe xCo xTe xO 19 — we have optimized the melt co-precipitation method and shown a new opportunity to provide chemical homogeneity of microcrystallites by means of cryotechnology. Magnetic characteristics of the magnetic tape experimental sample for digital video recording are presented. A series of principles of consistent control of ferrite powder properties are formulated and illustrated with specific developments.
Magnetic properties and microwave characteristics of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite film fabricated by aerosol deposition method. Kagotani, T. E-mail: kagotant material. Microwave radiation in the GHz is increasingly being used in telecommunication and data processing. However, this has given rise to electromagnetic wave interference EMI.
Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite film was prepared by aerosol deposition method ADM depending on its capability as an absorber or a conducted noise suppressor in the quasi- microwave frequency range. The ADM is a kind of high-speed coating method.
The saturation magnetization of the film was 6. This value was nearly equal to that of sintered sample. For the present target design concept, the temperature at the container will be likely controlled in a temperature range between degrees C to degrees C. Hence, CMFS seem to be difficult to apply. However, solution annealed austenitic stainless steels are also difficult to apply as the maximum stress level at the container will be higher than the design stress.
Handbook on dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials. The application of microwave energy for thermal processing of different materials and substances is a rapidly growing trend in modern science and engineering. In fact, optimal design work involving microwaves is impossible without solid knowledge of the properties of these materials. Here s a practical reference that collects essential data on the dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials , saving you countless hours on projects in a wide range of areas, including microwave design and heating, applied electrodynamics, food science, and medical technology.
This unique book provides hard-to-find information on complex dielectric permittivity of media at industrial, scientific, and medical frequencies MHz, MHz, 2. Written by a leading expert in the field, this authoritative book does an exceptional job at presenting critical data on various materials and explaining what their key characteristics are concerning microwaves.
M-type barium hexa ferrite magnetic material for anti radar materials at s band frequency. Materials characterization is covering the average grain sizes and absorption of microwaves in the frequency range GHz. It is shown that the co-substitution of Mn and Ti ion able to widen the absorption frequency especially in the frequencies of about 3, MHz.
Anchieta, Chayene G. The effects of microwave heating time and power on the properties of produced particles were investigated. X-ray diffraction XRD , Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR , atomic force microscopy AFM and nitrogen adsorption—desorption isotherms were the techniques used for characterizing the solid products.
The synthesized material was tested as a catalyst in the degradation of the textile dye molecule by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Characterization results showed that the microwave heating time and power have significant influences on the formation of the phase spinel as well as on its physical properties. A ferrite nano-particles based fully printed process for tunable microwave components.
For fully printed designs, ideally, the substrate must also be printed. In this work, we demonstrate a fully printed process utilizing a custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink for functional substrate printing and a custom silver. Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for fusion reactor. Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for the blanket of fusion device were investigated.
A test chamber was constructed by welding F82H ferritic steel plates. The inner surface of the chamber was buffed and electropolished. The test chamber was degassed by the prebaking at temperature of degC for 20 h in vacuum. Then outgassing rates of the test chamber were measured by the throughput method as a function of pumping time for the cases that the test chamber was baked and not baked. Jacobo, Silvia E. The M vs. H loops of the composites were determined with a vibrating sample magnetometer VSM and the interaction with the X-band microwave radiation of the nanocomposites dispersed in epoxy resin was measured with a vector network analyzer VNA.
With the advent of nano-particles based metallic inks, inkjet printing emerged as an attractive medium for fast prototyping as well as for low cost and flexible electronics. However, at present, it is limited to printing of metallic inks on conventional microwave substrates. In this work, we demonstrate a fully printed process utilizing a custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink for functional substrate printing and a custom silver-organo-complex SOC ink for metal traces printing.
Due to the magnetic nature of the ink, this process is highly suitable for tunable microwave components. The printed magnetic substrate is characterized for the magnetostatic as well as microwave properties. The measured B H curve shows a saturation magnetization and remanence of and Gauss respectively. The microwave palaeointensity technique was developed in Liverpool University Walton et al and has successfully been applied to archaeological ceramics and recent lavas Shaw et al , These published results show that microwave analysis provides accurate palaeointensity determinations com- bined with a very high success rate.
Most recently the technique has been successfully applied to Martian material Shaw et al, to look for the existence of an internal Martian dynamo early in Martian history. New experiments have been carried out us- ing microwaves to demagnetise synthetic muti-component TRM's and new palaeoin- tensity experiments providing a comparison between microwave analysis of laboratory TRM's and conventional thermal Thellier analysis of microwave generated mTRM's.
These experiments demonstrate the equivalence of microwave and thermally gener- ated TRM's. Walton, S Snape, T. Rolph, J. Shaw and J. Share, Application of ferromagnetic resonance heating to palaeointensity determinations. Shaw, D. Walton, S Yang, T. Rolph, and J. Microwave Archaeointensities from Peruvian Ceramics.
Int,, J. Shaw, S. Yang, T. Rolph, and F. A comparison of archaeointensity results from Chinese ceramics using Microwave and conventional ThellierSs and ShawSs methods. Hill, and J. Shaw, , Palaeointensity results for Historic Lavas from Mt. Int, , M. Shaw, Magnetic field intensity study of the Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii, using the microwave palaeointensity technique, Geophys. Shaw, M. Hill, and S. Openshaw, , Investigating the ancient Martian magnetic field using microwaves , Earth and Planetary Science Letters Dielectric properties of polycrystalline Cu-Zn ferrites at microwave frequencies.
Lamani, Ashok R. At low frequencies the dielectric loss is found to be constant up to 1. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition, frequency dependence of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of Cu 1-x Zn x Fe 2 O 4. These are correlated with the W-H plot which gives the information about change in the average crystal size and strain of the samples.
The micrograph shows that the increase of the Zn content in Cu ferrite increases the grain size. A review on the susceptor assisted microwave processing of materials. Microwave processing has received significant attention based on the energy efficient volumetric processing. The internal heat generation during the microwave heating unleashes the heat transfer limitations of the conventional furnaces and thus, the microwave processing can be performed at much faster rates than the conventional furnaces.
Susceptors further accelerate the microwave processing via providing a two-way heating with reduced heat losses from the surface of the material. In addition, the rapid initial heating via susceptors becomes the key factor to execute the energy efficient microwave processing for the poorly microwave absorbing materials. These characteristics have been massively exploited for various applications material processing, synthesis and waste treatments over the last few decades and this review evaluates those processing characteristics with an emphasis on the energy efficiency.
Till date, the advancement of the susceptor assisted microwave processing is primarily based on the experimental trials and this review brings together various case studies so that the readers can have a clear idea about the current status in each field of applications. This can be of immense help not only to select the appropriate susceptor, but also to select the future research direction for the advancement of the energy efficient processing.
Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies up to ten decades. They remain the preferred magnetic materials , having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators.
Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites.
Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites , with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites.
We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms. C both in power and petrochemical plant, as well as good resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Material softening is the main physical phenomenon observed in the crept material.
Thermally-induced change such as particle coarsening or matrix solute depletion and strain-induced change such as dynamic subgrain growth of microstructure degraded the alloy strength. These microstructural changes during a creep test cause the material softening, so the strength of the materials decreased. Many researches have been performed for the microstructural changes during a creep test, but the strength of crept materials has not been measured.
In the present work, we measured the yield and tensile strength of crept materials using Indentationtyped Tensile Test System AIS Material softening was quantitatively evaluated with a creep test condition, such as temperature and applied stress. Microwave synthesis of electrode materials for lithium batteries. A novel microwave method is described for the preparation of electrode materials required for lithium batteries.
The method is simple, fast and carried out in most cases with the same starting material as in conventional methods. Good crystallinity has been noted and lower temperatures of reaction has been inferred in Dielectric characterization of materials at microwave frequency range. Full Text Available In this study a coaxial line was used to connect a microwave -frequency Network Analyzer and a base moving sample holder for dielectric characterization of ferroelectric materials in the microwave range.
The main innovation of the technique is the introduction of a special sample holder that eliminates the air gap effect by pressing sample using a fine pressure system control. The device was preliminary tested with alumina Al2O3 ceramics and validated up to 2 GHz. Dielectric measurements of lanthanum and manganese modified lead titanate PLTM ceramics were carried out in order to evaluate the technique for a high permittivity material in the microwave range.
Results showed that such method is very useful for materials with high dielectric permittivities, which is generally a limiting factor of other techniques in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 2 GHz. Luo, Juhua, E-mail: luojuhua Effect of the substituted RE ions on structure, magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction XRD , vibrating sample magnetometer VSM and vector network analyzer.
All XRD patterns show the single phase of strontium hexaferrite without other intermediate phases. The crystallite size of synthesized particle is within the range of The structural in character of the composites were investigated with FT-IR analysis. It shows that the ferrite successfully packed by PPy. TEM photographs show that the particle size had grown up to 50— nm after coating with PPy. And its width Ferrites and ceramic composites.
The Ferrite term is used to refer to all magnetic oxides containing iron as major metallic component. Ferrites are very attractive materials because they simultaneously show high resistivity and high saturation magnetization, and attract now considerable attention, because of the interesting physics involved. Typical ferrite material possesses excellent chemical stability, high corrosion resistivity, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, magneto-striction, and magneto-optical properties.
Ferrites belong to the group of ferrimagnetic oxides, and include rare-earth garnets and ortho- ferrites. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves ; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla. Kaeaeriaeinen, H. Construction and Facility Management. In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building.
NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials , such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood.
At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes.
Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz.
The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the.
The preparation of polyurethane PU polyols processed with the use of microwave MW irradiation heating polyols is reported. Obtained MW polyols were compared to the conventional PU polyols synthesized by traditional heating in oil bath. The polyols have the similar properties.
Acid number, hydroxyl value, moisture content and viscosity of the MW synthesized polyols were measured. The advantages of the very fast reaction rate for preparation of PU polyols, by using MW instead of the conventional heating process, are shown. The heat storage material based on paraffin-modified multilayer carbon nanotubes with Nickel-zinc ferrite. The paper presents an investigation of magnetically controlled heat-storage material based on paraffin, modified with multilayer carbon nanotubes with nickel-zinc ferrite.
The technology of obtaining nanomodified material capable of interacting with magnetic field is presented. Microwave assisted synthesis of Magnetically responsive composite materials. Its high and stringent resolution requirement imposes a great deal of challenge for optical correction. Control of an adaptive optics array consisting of a large number of optical elements and smart material actuators is so complex that power distribution for activation and control of actuators must be done by other than hard-wired circuitry.
The concept of microwave -driven smart actuators is envisioned as the best option to alleviate the complexity associated with hard-wiring. A microwave -driven actuator was studied to realize such a concept for future applications. Piezoelectric material was used as an actuator that shows dimensional change with high electric field. The actuators were coupled with microwave rectenna and tested to correlate the coupling effect of electromagnetic wave. In experiments, a 3x3 rectenna patch array generated more than 50 volts which is a threshold voltage for nm displacement of a single piezoelectric material.
Overall, the test results indicate that the microwave -driven actuator concept can be adopted for NGST applications. Diniz, V. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Cornejo, D. Instituto de Fisica. The study of the processing of Ni-Zn ferrite is of extreme importance to improve its magnetic properties, as they are directly influenced by the final microstructure of the material. This study evaluated the influence of exposure time in the sintering of Ni-Zn ferrite phase by microwave energy, and its subsequent microstructural characterization, and magnetic.
Then were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. Problems of increasing of thermostability of highly permeable Ni-Zn ferrites and relative materials for telecommunications.
These results allow to increase the Curie temperature to deg. C for Ni-Zn ferrites with initial permeability Scanning microwave microscopy technique for nanoscale characterization of magnetic materials. Joseph, C. In this work, microwave characterization of magnetic materials using the scanning microwave microscopy SMM technique is presented. The capabilities of the SMM are employed for analyzing and imaging local magnetic properties of the materials under test at the nanoscale.
The analyses are performed by acquiring both amplitude and phase of the reflected microwave signal. An equivalent electromagnetic transmission line model is discussed for the quantitative analysis of the local magnetic properties. The imaging and spectroscopy analysis on the experimental results are evidently indicating the possibilities of measuring local changes in the intrinsic magnetic properties on the surface of the material.
High-performance zig-zag and meander inductors embedded in ferrite material. This paper describes the design, modeling, simulation and fabrication of zig-zag and meander inductors embedded in low- or high-permeability soft ferrite material.
These microinductors have been developed with ceramic coprocessing technology. We compare the electrical properties of zig-zag and meander inductors structures installed as surface-mount devices. The equivalent model of the new structures is presented, suitable for design, circuit simulations and for prediction of the performance of proposed inductors. The relatively high impedance values allow these microinductors to be used in high-frequency suppressors.
The measurements confirm the validity of the analytical model. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles as perspective functional materials for applications in casting technologies. Full Text Available In this article it discuss on possible application of magnetic oxide nanoparticles, namely non-stoichiometric zinc ferrite nanoparticles as a functionalizing agent in foundry processes. Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service.
This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials dense chrome and dense zircon were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.
The constitution of stainless iron alloys and the characteristic properties of alloys in the main ferritic , martensitic and austenitic groups are discussed. The ferromagnetism exhibited by martensitic and ferritic alloys has, however, been identified as a potentially serious obstacle to their utilisation in magnetic confinement devices. The paper describes measurements performed in other laboratories on the magnetic properties of two representative martensitic alloys 12Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-2Mo.
These observations show that a modest bias magnetic field of magnitude 1 - 2 tesla induces a state of magnetic saturation in these materials. They would thus behave as essentially paramagnetic materials having a relative permeability close to unity when saturated by the toroidal field of a tokamak reactor. The results of computations by the General Atomic research group to assess the implications of such magnetic behaviour on reactor design and operation are presented.
LANL staff immediately proposed HT-9 for the reactor vessel and components, as well as fuel clad and ducting, due to its superior thermal qualities. Although the ASME material Code Case, for adoption of HT-9 as an approved elevated temperature material for LMFR service, is the ultimate goal of this project, there are several key deliverables that must first be successfully accomplished.
The most important key deliverable is the research, accumulation, and documentation of specific material parameters; physical, mechanical, and environmental, which becomes the basis for an ASME Code Case. Time-independent tensile and ductility data and time-dependent creep and creep-rupture behavior are some of the material properties required for a successful ASME Code case. Although this report provides a cursory review of the available data, a much more comprehensive study of open-source data would be necessary.
This report serves three purposes: a provides a list of already existing material data information that could ultimately be made available to the ASME Code, b determines the HT-9 material properties data missing from available sources that would be required and c estimates the necessary material testing required to close the gap. Ultimately, the gap analysis demonstrates that certain material properties testing will be required to fulfill the necessary information package for an ASME Code Case.
Full Text Available Nowadays, many types of materials are elaborated for microwave absorption applications. Carbon-based nanoparticles belong to these types of materials. Among these, graphene presents some distinctive features for electromagnetic radiation absorption and thus microwave isolation applications.
In this paper, the dielectric characteristics and microwave absorption properties of epoxy resin loaded with graphene particles are presented from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. Full Text Available Microwaves have been widely used in the treatment of materials , such as heating, drying, and sterilization. However, the heating in the commonly used microwave applicators is usually uneven.
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