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Authorities say schools could soon begin a phased reopening, but organisations like Slum2School have tried to fill the void. It is a Lagos-based charity working across Africa to educate children growing up in poorer communities. Since July, it has given tablets and laptops to teachers and pupils in the Makoko slum for live remote lessons - normally an unaffordable solution for the children.

Esther, who received a tablet and headset from the charity, said she had missed attending school until the charity stepped in. With 30 teachers, Slum2School educated almost 1, children. It is targeting 10, students by year-end. But the slum's lack of power means difficulty charging electronics.

Esther's outdoor desk is a solution for the weak mobile signal indoors - she juggles between video and audio as the network drops. Slum2School tries to combat the electricity problems by providing power banks and solar charging kiosks. Long school breaks can cut children out of education as they are pushed to support poor families with menial work, said Otto Orondaam, the charity's founder.

Stephen Curry reacts to Philadelphia 76ers guard Seth Curry's historic stat line. Carson Wentz seems likely to be traded in the next few days, and the QB apparently has some thoughts on his destination. By Adam Hermann. Tom Brady jokingly devised a master plan to earn himself and his Bucs teammates a few extra bucks from Super Bowl 55, according his QB coach. The paper later changed the headline. Dak Prescott's franchise tag drama continues in Dallas; the free agency period could also bring cornerback and defensive line help.

Washington Football Team is trying to figure out what to do at QB, and their latest decision is extremely intriguing. Brady and Mahomes were mic'd up for their postgame chat. Jeremy Maclin retired two years ago, but the former Eagles wideout hasn't been sitting around.

The 49ers could use some help with their defensive backs. After LaMelo Ball did not see the court in the fourth quarter vs. Memphis, head coach James Borrego explained the reasoning for his benching. Cowher paid tribute to his friend and mentor, Marty Schottenheimer, via a message on Twitter. With five quarterbacks going in Round 1, it could be a wild ride early in the NFL draft.

In Europe, slums were common. A footnote defined slum to mean "low, unfrequent parts of the town". Charles Dickens used the word slum in a similar way in , writing "I mean to take a great, London, back-slum kind walk tonight".

Slum began to be used to describe bad housing soon after and was used as alternative expression for rookeries. Close under the Abbey of Westminster there lie concealed labyrinths of lanes and potty and alleys and slums, nests of ignorance, vice, depravity, and crime, as well as of squalor, wretchedness, and disease; whose atmosphere is typhus, whose ventilation is cholera; in which swarms of huge and almost countless population, nominally at least, Catholic; haunts of filth, which no sewage committee can reach — dark corners, which no lighting board can brighten.

This passage was widely quoted in the national press, [25] leading to the popularization of the word slum to describe bad housing. In France as in most industrialised European capitals, slums were widespread in Paris and other urban areas in the 19th century, many of which continued through first half of the 20th century.

This demographic and economic trend rapidly raised rents of existing housing as well as expanded slums. French government passed laws to block increase in the rent of housing, which inadvertently made many housing projects unprofitable and increased slums.

New York City is believed to have created the United States' first slum, named the Five Points in , as it evolved into a large urban settlement. Trash piled up as well and by the early s the lake was filled up and dry. On this foundation was built Five Points, the United States' first slum.

Five Points was occupied by successive waves of freed slaves, Irish, then Italian, then Chinese, immigrants. It housed the poor, rural people leaving farms for opportunity, and the persecuted people from Europe pouring into New York City. Bars, bordellos, squalid and lightless tenements lined its streets. Violence and crime were commonplace. Politicians and social elite discussed it with derision. Slums like Five Points triggered discussions of affordable housing and slum removal.

As of the start of the 21st century, Five Points slum had been transformed into the Little Italy and Chinatown neighborhoods of New York City, through that city's campaign of massive urban renewal. Five Points was not the only slum in America. Slums were found in every major urban region of the United States throughout most of the 20th century, long after the Great Depression. Most of these slums had been ignored by the cities and states which encompassed them until the s' War on Poverty was undertaken by the Federal government of the United States.

A type of slum housing, sometimes called poorhouses, crowded the Boston Commons, later at the fringes of the city. Rio de Janeiro documented its first slum in census. By , in various cities and towns of Latin America alone, there were about 25, slums. Slums sprout and continue for a combination of demographic, social, economic, and political reasons. Common causes include rapid rural-to-urban migration, poor planning, economic stagnation and depression, poverty, high unemployment, informal economy, colonialism and segregation, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts.

Rural—urban migration is one of the causes attributed to the formation and expansion of slums. Many people move to urban areas primarily because cities promise more jobs, better schools for poor's children, and diverse income opportunities than subsistence farming in rural areas.

Some rural—urban migrant workers cannot afford housing in cities and eventually settle down in only affordable slums. They thus expand the existing urban slums. According to Ali and Toran, social networks might also explain rural—urban migration and people's ultimate settlement in slums. In addition to migration for jobs, a portion of people migrate to cities because of their connection with relatives or families.

Once their family support in urban areas is in slums, those rural migrants intend to live with them in slums [54]. The formation of slums is closely linked to urbanization. Some scholars suggest that urbanization creates slums because local governments are unable to manage urbanization, and migrant workers without an affordable place to live in, dwell in slums. In the early s, many African governments believed that slums would finally disappear with economic growth in urban areas.

They neglected rapidly spreading slums due to increased rural-urban migration caused by urbanization. Another type of urbanization does not involve economic growth but economic stagnation or low growth, mainly contributing to slum growth in Sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. This type of urbanization involves a high rate of unemployment , insufficient financial resources and inconsistent urban planning policy. Urbanization might also force some people to live in slums when it influences land use by transforming agricultural land into urban areas and increases land value.

During the process of urbanization, some agricultural land is used for additional urban activities. More investment will come into these areas, which increases the land value. The income from the land will decline, which decreases the people's incomes in that area. The gap between people's low income and the high land price forces some people to look for and construct cheap informal settlements , which are known as slums in urban areas. Many slums are part of economies of agglomeration in which there is an emergence of economies of scale at the firm level, transport costs and the mobility of the industrial labour force.

Alonso-Villar argues that the existence of transport costs implies that the best locations for a firm will be those with easy access to markets, and the best locations for workers, those with easy access to goods. The concentration is the result of a self-reinforcing process of agglomeration. Urban growth is dramatically intense in the less developed countries, where a large number of huge cities have started to appear; which means high poverty rates, crime, pollution and congestion.

Lack of affordable low cost housing and poor planning encourages the supply side of slums. Insufficient financial resources [72] and lack of coordination in government bureaucracy [65] are two main causes of poor house planning. Financial deficiency in some governments may explain the lack of affordable public housing for the poor since any improvement of the tenant in slums and expansion of public housing programs involve a great increase in the government expenditure.

In some cities, governments assume that the housing market will adjust the supply of housing with a change in demand. However, with little economic incentive, the housing market is more likely to develop middle-income housing rather than low-cost housing. The urban poor gradually become marginalized in the housing market where few houses are built to sell to them.

Some of the slums in today's world are a product of urbanization brought by colonialism. For instance, the Europeans arrived in Kenya in the nineteenth century and created urban centers such as Nairobi mainly to serve their financial interests. They regarded the Africans as temporary migrants and needed them only for supply of labor. The housing policy aiming to accommodate these workers was not well enforced and the government built settlements in the form of single-occupancy bedspaces.

Due to the cost of time and money in their movement back and forth between rural and urban areas, their families gradually migrated to the urban centre. As they could not afford to buy houses, slums were thus formed. Others were created because of segregation imposed by the colonialists. For example, Dharavi slum of Mumbai — now one of the largest slums in India , used to be a village referred to as Koliwadas, and Mumbai used to be referred as Bombay.

In , the British colonial government expelled all tanneries, other noxious industry and poor natives who worked in the peninsular part of the city and colonial housing area, to what was back then the northern fringe of the city — a settlement now called Dharavi. This settlement attracted no colonial supervision or investment in terms of road infrastructure, sanitation , public services or housing.

The poor moved into Dharavi, found work as servants in colonial offices and homes and in the foreign owned tanneries and other polluting industries near Dharavi. To live, the poor built shanty towns within easy commute to work.

By , the year India became an independent nation of the commonwealth, Dharavi had blossomed into Bombay's largest slum. Similarly, some of the slums of Lagos , Nigeria sprouted because of neglect and policies of the colonial era.

Social exclusion and poor infrastructure forces the poor to adapt to conditions beyond his or her control. Poor families that cannot afford transportation, or those who simply lack any form of affordable public transportation, generally end up in squat settlements within walking distance or close enough to the place of their formal or informal employment. Affordable public transport and economic infrastructure empowers poor people to move and consider housing options other than their current slums.

A growing economy that creates jobs at rate faster than population growth, offers people opportunities and incentive to relocate from poor slum to more developed neighborhoods. Economic stagnation, in contrast, creates uncertainties and risks for the poor, encouraging people to stay in the slums. Economic stagnation in a nation with a growing population reduces per capita disposal income in urban and rural areas, increasing urban and rural poverty.

Rising rural poverty also encourages migration to urban areas. A poorly performing economy, in other words, increases poverty and rural-to-urban migration, thereby increasing slums. Many slums grow because of growing informal economy which creates demand for workers. Informal economy is that part of an economy that is neither registered as a business nor licensed, one that does not pay taxes and is not monitored by local or state or federal government.

For example, in Benin, slum dwellers comprise 75 per cent of informal sector workers, while in Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Chad and Ethiopia, they make up 90 per cent of the informal labour force. In other words, countries where starting, registering and running a formal business is difficult, tend to encourage informal businesses and slums.

Everything else remaining same, this explosive growth in the informal sector is likely to be accompanied by a rapid growth of slums. Research in the latest years based on ethnographic studies, conducted since about slums, published initially in , has found out the primary importance of labour as the main cause of emergence, rural-urban migration, consolidation and growth of informal settlements. Also, the choice of the terrain for the construction of the favela the margins of a lagoon followed the rationale that it could offer conditions to provide them means of work.

When resettled, the main reason of changes of formal housing units was due to the lack of possibilities to perform their work in the new houses designed according to formal architecture principles, or even by the distances they had to travel to work in the slum where they originally lived, which was in turn faced by residents by self-constructing spaces to shelter the work originally performed in the slum, in the formal housing units.

Urban poverty encourages the formation and demand for slums. The urban poor arrives with hope, and very little of anything else. He or she typically has no access to shelter, basic urban services and social amenities. Slums are often the only option for the urban poor.

Many local and national governments have, for political interests, subverted efforts to remove, reduce or upgrade slums into better housing options for the poor. Removal and replacement of slum created a conflict of interest, and politics prevented efforts to remove, relocate or upgrade the slums into housing projects that are better than the slums. Similar dynamics are cited in favelas of Brazil, [98] slums of India, [99] [] and shanty towns of Kenya. Scholars [12] [] claim politics also drives rural-urban migration and subsequent settlement patterns.

Pre-existing patronage networks, sometimes in the form of gangs and other times in the form of political parties or social activists, inside slums seek to maintain their economic, social and political power. These social and political groups have vested interests to encourage migration by ethnic groups that will help maintain the slums, and reject alternate housing options even if the alternate options are better in every aspect than the slums they seek to replace.

Millions of Lebanese people formed slums during the Lebanese Civil War from to Major natural disasters in poor nations often lead to migration of disaster-affected families from areas crippled by the disaster to unaffected areas, the creation of temporary tent city and slums, or expansion of existing slums. Slums typically begin at the outskirts of a city. Over time, the city may expand past the original slums, enclosing the slums inside the urban perimeter.

New slums sprout at the new boundaries of the expanding city, usually on publicly owned lands, thereby creating an urban sprawl mix of formal settlements, industry, retail zones and slums. This makes the original slums valuable property, densely populated with many conveniences attractive to the poor. At their start, slums are typically located in least desirable lands near the town or city, that are state owned or philanthropic trust owned or religious entity owned or have no clear land title.

In cities located over a mountainous terrain, slums begin on difficult to reach slopes or start at the bottom of flood prone valleys, often hidden from plain view of city center but close to some natural water source. These strategies shield slums from the risk of being noticed and removed when they are small and most vulnerable to local government officials. Initial homes tend to be tents and shacks that are quick to install, but as slum grows, becomes established and newcomers pay the informal association or gang for the right to live in the slum, the construction materials for the slums switches to more lasting materials such as bricks and concrete, suitable for slum's topography.

The original slums, over time, get established next to centers of economic activity, schools, hospitals, sources of employment, which the poor rely on. Informality of land tenure is a key characteristic of urban slums. The newcomers, having paid for the right, feel they have commercial right to the home in that slum. Secure land tenure is important for slum dwellers as an authentic recognition of their residential status in urban areas.

It also encourages them to upgrade their housing facilities, which will give them protection against natural and unnatural hazards. In addition, without registration of the land ownership, the government has difficulty in upgrading basic facilities and improving the living environment. Slum areas are characterized by substandard housing structures. Often the construction quality is inadequate to withstand heavy rains, high winds, or other local climate and location.

Paper, plastic, earthen floors, mud-and-wattle walls, wood held together by ropes, straw or torn metal pieces as roofs are some of the materials of construction. In some cases, brick and cement is used, but without attention to proper design and structural engineering requirements.

Overcrowding is another characteristic of slums. Many dwellings are single room units, with high occupancy rates. Each dwelling may be cohabited by multiple families. Five and more persons may share a one-room unit; the room is used for cooking, sleeping and living.

Overcrowding is also seen near sources of drinking water, cleaning, and sanitation where one toilet may serve dozens of families. However, the density and neighbourhood effects of slum populations may also offer an opportunity to target health interventions.

One of the identifying characteristics of slums is the lack of or inadequate public infrastructure. Established, old slums sometimes garner official support and get some of these infrastructure such as paved roads and unreliable electricity or water supply. Slums often have very narrow alleys that do not allow vehicles including emergency vehicles to pass. The lack of services such as routine garbage collection allows rubbish to accumulate in huge quantities.

Fires are often a serious problem. In many countries, local and national government often refuse to recognize slums, because the slum are on disputed land, or because of the fear that quick official recognition will encourage more slum formation and seizure of land illegally.

Recognizing and notifying slums often triggers a creation of property rights, and requires that the government provide public services and infrastructure to the slum residents. In other cases, the narrow and haphazard layout of slum streets, houses and substandard shacks, along with persistent threat of crime and violence against infrastructure workers, makes it difficult to layout reliable, safe, cost effective and efficient infrastructure. In yet others, the demand far exceeds the government bureaucracy's ability to deliver.

Low socioeconomic status of its residents is another common characteristic attributed to slum residents. Slums are often placed among the places vulnerable to natural disasters such as landslides [] and floods. Some slums risk man-made hazards such as toxic industries , traffic congestion and collapsing infrastructure. Due to lack of skills and education as well as competitive job markets, [] many slum dwellers face high rates of unemployment. This can sometimes be licit informal economy or illicit informal economy without working contract or any social security.

Some of them are seeking jobs at the same time and some of those will eventually find jobs in formal economies after gaining some professional skills in informal sectors. Examples of licit informal economy include street vending, household enterprises, product assembly and packaging, making garlands and embroideries, domestic work, shoe polishing or repair, driving tuk-tuk or manual rickshaws, construction workers or manually driven logistics, and handicrafts production.

The slum-dwellers in informal economies run many risks. The informal sector, by its very nature, means income insecurity and lack of social mobility. There is also absence of legal contracts, protection of labor rights, regulations and bargaining power in informal employments. Some scholars suggest that crime is one of the main concerns in slums. In Nairobi slums, for example, one fourth of all teenage girls are raped each year.

On the other hand, while UN-Habitat reports some slums are more exposed to crimes with higher crime rates for instance, the traditional inner-city slums , crime is not the direct resultant of block layout in many slums. Rather crime is one of the symptoms of slum dwelling; thus slums consist of more victims than criminals. Often in such circumstance, multiple gangs fight for control over revenue.

Slum crime rate correlates with insufficient law enforcement and inadequate public policing. In main cities of developing countries, law enforcement lags behind urban growth and slum expansion. Often police can not reduce crime because, due to ineffective city planning and governance, slums set inefficient crime prevention system.

Such problems is not primarily due to community indifference. Leads and information intelligence from slums are rare, streets are narrow and a potential death traps to patrol, and many in the slum community have an inherent distrust of authorities from fear ranging from eviction to collection on unpaid utility bills to general law and order.

Women in slums are at greater risk of physical and sexual violence. Slums are often non-secured areas and women often risk sexual violence when they walk alone in slums late at night. Violence against women and women's security in slums emerge as recurrent issues. Another prevalent form of violence in slums is armed violence gun violence , mostly existing in African and Latin American slums. It leads to homicide and the emergence of criminal gangs.

Domestic violence against men also exists in slums, including verbal abuses and even physical violence from households. Cohen as well as Merton theorized that the cycle of slum violence does not mean slums are inevitably criminogenic, rather in some cases it is frustration against life in slum, and a consequence of denial of opportunity to slum residents to leave the slum. Slum dwellers usually experience a high rate of disease. Factors that have been attributed to a higher rate of disease transmission in slums include high population densities , poor living conditions, low vaccination rates, insufficient health-related data and inadequate health service.

Poor water quality , a manifest example, is a cause of many major illnesses including malaria , diarrhea and trachoma. Slums have been historically linked to epidemics, and this trend has continued in modern times. Child malnutrition is more common in slums than in non-slum areas.

These children all suffer from third-degree malnutrition, the most severe level, according to WHO standards. Abhay Bang 's report shows that malnutrition kills 56, children annually in urban slums in India. Widespread child malnutrition in slums is closely related to family income , mothers' food practice, mothers' educational level, and maternal employment or housewifery.

Mothers' lack of education leads to their faulty feeding practices. Many mothers in slums don't have knowledge on food nutrition for children. For the mothers who work outside, their children are prone to be malnourished. These children are likely to be neglected by their mothers or sometimes not carefully looked after by their female relatives. A multitude of non-contagious diseases also impact health for slum residents.

Examples of prevalent non-infectious diseases include: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, neurological disorders, and mental illness. Factors like poor sanitation, low literacy rates, and limited awareness make diarrhea and other dangerous diseases extremely prevalent and burdensome on the community.

Lack of reliable data also has a negative impact on slum dwellers' health. A number of slum families do not report cases or seek professional medical care, which results in insufficient data. A significant portion of city populations face challenges with access to health care but do not live in locations that are described as within the "slum" area.

Overall, a complex network of physical, social, and environmental factors contribute to the health threats faced by slum residents. Recent years have seen a dramatic growth in the number of slums as urban populations have increased in developing countries. United Nations Habitat group believes change is possible. To achieve the goal of "cities without slums", the UN claims that governments must undertake vigorous urban planning, city management, infrastructure development, slum upgrading and poverty reduction.

Some city and state officials have simply sought to remove slums. As the slum started by violating another's property rights, the residents have no legal claim to the land. Critics argue that slum removal by force tend to ignore the social problems that cause slums. The poor children as well as working adults of a city's informal economy need a place to live.

Slum clearance removes the slum, but it does not remove the causes that create and maintain the slum. Slum relocation strategies rely on removing the slums and relocating the slum poor to free semi-rural peripheries of cities, sometimes in free housing. This strategy ignores several dimensions of a slum life.

The strategy sees slum as merely a place where the poor lives. In reality, slums are often integrated with every aspect of a slum resident's life, including sources of employment, distance from work and social life. The slum residents have been convinced that their current location is a health hazard, prone to natural disaster, or that the alternative location is well connected to employment opportunities. Some governments have begun to approach slums as a possible opportunity to urban development by slum upgrading.

This approach was inspired in part by the theoretical writings of John Turner in Turner argued not to demolish the housing, but to improve the environment: if governments can clear existing slums of unsanitary human waste, polluted water and litter, and from muddy unlit lanes, they do not have to worry about the shanty housing.

In Mexico City for example, the government attempted to upgrade and urbanize settled slums in the periphery during the s and s by including basic amenities such as concrete roads, parks, illumination and sewage. Currently, most slums in Mexico City face basic characteristics of traditional slums, characterized to some extent in housing, population density, crime and poverty, however, the vast majority of its inhabitants have access to basic amenities and most areas are connected to major roads and completely urbanized.

Nevertheless, smaller settlements lacking these can still be found in the periphery of the city and its inhabitants are known as "paracaidistas". Another example of this approach is the slum upgrade in Tondo slum near Manila , Philippines. There was a large increase in cost, numerous delays, re-engineering of details to address political disputes, and other complications after the project.

Despite these failures, the project reaffirmed the core assumption and Tondo families did build their own houses of far better quality than originally assumed.

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On the other hand, while UN-Habitat reports some slums are more exposed to crimes with higher crime rates for instance, the traditional inner-city slums , crime is not the direct resultant of block layout in many slums. Rather crime is one of the symptoms of slum dwelling; thus slums consist of more victims than criminals. Often in such circumstance, multiple gangs fight for control over revenue. Slum crime rate correlates with insufficient law enforcement and inadequate public policing.

In main cities of developing countries, law enforcement lags behind urban growth and slum expansion. Often police can not reduce crime because, due to ineffective city planning and governance, slums set inefficient crime prevention system. Such problems is not primarily due to community indifference.

Leads and information intelligence from slums are rare, streets are narrow and a potential death traps to patrol, and many in the slum community have an inherent distrust of authorities from fear ranging from eviction to collection on unpaid utility bills to general law and order. Women in slums are at greater risk of physical and sexual violence. Slums are often non-secured areas and women often risk sexual violence when they walk alone in slums late at night.

Violence against women and women's security in slums emerge as recurrent issues. Another prevalent form of violence in slums is armed violence gun violence , mostly existing in African and Latin American slums. It leads to homicide and the emergence of criminal gangs.

Domestic violence against men also exists in slums, including verbal abuses and even physical violence from households. Cohen as well as Merton theorized that the cycle of slum violence does not mean slums are inevitably criminogenic, rather in some cases it is frustration against life in slum, and a consequence of denial of opportunity to slum residents to leave the slum.

Slum dwellers usually experience a high rate of disease. Factors that have been attributed to a higher rate of disease transmission in slums include high population densities , poor living conditions, low vaccination rates, insufficient health-related data and inadequate health service.

Poor water quality , a manifest example, is a cause of many major illnesses including malaria , diarrhea and trachoma. Slums have been historically linked to epidemics, and this trend has continued in modern times. Child malnutrition is more common in slums than in non-slum areas.

These children all suffer from third-degree malnutrition, the most severe level, according to WHO standards. Abhay Bang 's report shows that malnutrition kills 56, children annually in urban slums in India. Widespread child malnutrition in slums is closely related to family income , mothers' food practice, mothers' educational level, and maternal employment or housewifery. Mothers' lack of education leads to their faulty feeding practices.

Many mothers in slums don't have knowledge on food nutrition for children. For the mothers who work outside, their children are prone to be malnourished. These children are likely to be neglected by their mothers or sometimes not carefully looked after by their female relatives.

A multitude of non-contagious diseases also impact health for slum residents. Examples of prevalent non-infectious diseases include: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, neurological disorders, and mental illness. Factors like poor sanitation, low literacy rates, and limited awareness make diarrhea and other dangerous diseases extremely prevalent and burdensome on the community. Lack of reliable data also has a negative impact on slum dwellers' health.

A number of slum families do not report cases or seek professional medical care, which results in insufficient data. A significant portion of city populations face challenges with access to health care but do not live in locations that are described as within the "slum" area. Overall, a complex network of physical, social, and environmental factors contribute to the health threats faced by slum residents. Recent years have seen a dramatic growth in the number of slums as urban populations have increased in developing countries.

United Nations Habitat group believes change is possible. To achieve the goal of "cities without slums", the UN claims that governments must undertake vigorous urban planning, city management, infrastructure development, slum upgrading and poverty reduction. Some city and state officials have simply sought to remove slums. As the slum started by violating another's property rights, the residents have no legal claim to the land.

Critics argue that slum removal by force tend to ignore the social problems that cause slums. The poor children as well as working adults of a city's informal economy need a place to live. Slum clearance removes the slum, but it does not remove the causes that create and maintain the slum.

Slum relocation strategies rely on removing the slums and relocating the slum poor to free semi-rural peripheries of cities, sometimes in free housing. This strategy ignores several dimensions of a slum life. The strategy sees slum as merely a place where the poor lives.

In reality, slums are often integrated with every aspect of a slum resident's life, including sources of employment, distance from work and social life. The slum residents have been convinced that their current location is a health hazard, prone to natural disaster, or that the alternative location is well connected to employment opportunities. Some governments have begun to approach slums as a possible opportunity to urban development by slum upgrading. This approach was inspired in part by the theoretical writings of John Turner in Turner argued not to demolish the housing, but to improve the environment: if governments can clear existing slums of unsanitary human waste, polluted water and litter, and from muddy unlit lanes, they do not have to worry about the shanty housing.

In Mexico City for example, the government attempted to upgrade and urbanize settled slums in the periphery during the s and s by including basic amenities such as concrete roads, parks, illumination and sewage. Currently, most slums in Mexico City face basic characteristics of traditional slums, characterized to some extent in housing, population density, crime and poverty, however, the vast majority of its inhabitants have access to basic amenities and most areas are connected to major roads and completely urbanized.

Nevertheless, smaller settlements lacking these can still be found in the periphery of the city and its inhabitants are known as "paracaidistas". Another example of this approach is the slum upgrade in Tondo slum near Manila , Philippines. There was a large increase in cost, numerous delays, re-engineering of details to address political disputes, and other complications after the project. Despite these failures, the project reaffirmed the core assumption and Tondo families did build their own houses of far better quality than originally assumed.

Tondo residents became property owners with a stake in their neighborhood. A more recent example of slum-upgrading approach is PRIMED initiative in Medellin , Colombia, where streets, Metrocable transportation and other public infrastructure has been added. These slum infrastructure upgrades were combined with city infrastructure upgrade such as addition of metro, paved roads and highways to empower all city residents including the poor with reliable access throughout city.

Most slum upgrading projects, however, have produced mixed results. While initial evaluations were promising and success stories widely reported by media, evaluations done 5 to 10 years after a project completion have been disappointing. Herbert Werlin [] notes that the initial benefits of slum upgrading efforts have been ephemeral. The slum upgrading projects in kampungs of Jakarta Indonesia, for example, looked promising in first few years after upgrade, but thereafter returned to a condition worse than before, particularly in terms of sanitation, environmental problems and safety of drinking water.

Communal toilets provided under slum upgrading effort were poorly maintained, and abandoned by slum residents of Jakarta. The anticipated benefits of slum upgrading, claims Werlin, have proven to be a myth. Slum upgrading is largely a government controlled, funded and run process, rather than a competitive market driven process. Krueckeberg and Paulsen note [] conflicting politics, government corruption and street violence in slum regularization process is part of the reality.

Slum upgrading and tenure regularization also upgrade and regularize the slum bosses and political agendas, while threatening the influence and power of municipal officials and ministries. Slum upgrading does not address poverty, low paying jobs from informal economy, and other characteristics of slums.

Pedro, was mischaracterized by informal self-constructions by residents to restore working opportunities originally employed in the informal settlement. Charles Pearson argued in UK Parliament that mass transit would enable London to reduce slums and relocate slum dwellers. His proposal was initially rejected for lack of land and other reasons; but Pearson and others persisted with creative proposals such as building the mass transit under the major roads already in use and owned by the city.

London Underground was born, and its expansion has been credited to reducing slums in respective cities [] and to an extent, the New York City Subway 's smaller expansion. As cities expanded and business parks scattered due to cost ineffectiveness, people moved to live in the suburbs; thus retail, logistics, house maintenance and other businesses followed demand patterns.

City governments used infrastructure investments and urban planning to distribute work, housing, green areas, retail, schools and population densities. Affordable public mass transit in cities such as New York City, London and Paris allowed the poor to reach areas where they could earn a livelihood.

Public and council housing projects cleared slums and provided more sanitary housing options than what existed before the s. Slum clearance became a priority policy in Europe between —s, and one of the biggest state-led programs.

In the UK, the slum clearance effort was bigger in scale than the formation of British Railways , the National Health Service and other state programs. UK Government data suggests the clearances that took place after demolished about 1. The US and European governments additionally created a procedure by which the poor could directly apply to the government for housing assistance, thus becoming a partner to identifying and meeting the housing needs of its citizens.

In Brazil, in , the government built about 2 million houses around the country for lower income families. The public program was named "Minha casa, minha vida" which means "My house, my life". However, slum relocation in the name of urban development is criticized for uprooting communities without consultation or consideration of ongoing livelihood.

Slums exist in many countries and have become a global phenomenon. The distribution of slums within a city varies throughout the world. In most of the developed countries , it is easier to distinguish the slum-areas and non-slum areas. In the United States , slum dwellers are usually in city neighborhoods and inner suburbs , while in Europe , they are more common in high rise housing on the urban outskirts.

In many developing countries , slums are prevalent as distributed pockets or as urban orbits of densely constructed informal settlements. These are sometimes called slum cities. The percentage of developing world's urban population living in slums has been dropping with economic development, even while total urban population has been increasing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of decrepit housing units.

Dhaka , Bangladesh. Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam. Nairobi , Kenya. Paris , France. Jakarta , Indonesia. Cape Town , South Africa. Mumbai , India. Caracas , Venezuela. Buenos Aires , Argentina. Cairo , Egypt. Manila , Philippines. Tlalnepantla de Baz , Mexico. Shanghai , China. Yerevan , Armenia.

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Malaria Journal. International Journal of Health Geographics. BMC Public Health. BMC Infectious Diseases. By Adam Hermann. Tom Brady jokingly devised a master plan to earn himself and his Bucs teammates a few extra bucks from Super Bowl 55, according his QB coach. The paper later changed the headline. Dak Prescott's franchise tag drama continues in Dallas; the free agency period could also bring cornerback and defensive line help.

Washington Football Team is trying to figure out what to do at QB, and their latest decision is extremely intriguing. Brady and Mahomes were mic'd up for their postgame chat. Jeremy Maclin retired two years ago, but the former Eagles wideout hasn't been sitting around.

The 49ers could use some help with their defensive backs. After LaMelo Ball did not see the court in the fourth quarter vs. Memphis, head coach James Borrego explained the reasoning for his benching. Cowher paid tribute to his friend and mentor, Marty Schottenheimer, via a message on Twitter.

With five quarterbacks going in Round 1, it could be a wild ride early in the NFL draft. Alex Bowman and William Byron swept the front row Wednesday night in qualifying for the Daytona , giving Hendrick its 14th pole and sixth in the last seven years. Rick Hendrick's engine-building wing has seven straight poles because it powers Ricky Stenhouse Jr. Tyrrell Hatton said Bryson DeChambeau would be "very brave" if he attempted to drive Bay Hill's par-5 sixth in competition.

Read full article. Nigerian charity tries to salvage a slum's schooling amid pandemic Esther Ikechukwu, a beneficiary of Slum2School project attends a virtual class from her home in Makoko, Lagos. Nigerian charity tries to salvage a slum's schooling amid pandemic Otto Orondaam, a social entrepreneur, teaches at a virtual class session prepared for resident students of slums and remote communities in Lagos.

Nigerian charity tries to salvage a slum's schooling amid pandemic Esther Ikechukwu, a beneficiary of Slum2School project, attends a virtual class from her home in Makoko, Lagos. Yahoo News is better in the app Stay in the know at a glance with the Top 10 daily stories. Nigerian charity tries to salvage a slum's schooling amid pandemic The exterior of the Slum2School project, a volunteer-driven organisation empowering underserved children in slums and remote communities in Lagos. Latest Stories.

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Nigerian charity tries to salvage a slum's schooling amid pandemic slum of Makoko, Esther Ikechukwu stacks two upturned buckets, places a handbag on Tesla announces $ billion bitcoin bet, makes payments pledge. Makoko, a vast slum of houses on stilts in a Lagos lagoon, now boasts a new school - pyramid-shaped, floating and capable of withstanding the. More and more African sports lovers are turning to sports betting as the In Africa, countries like Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa are Lotteries, poker, sport bets, slot machines, casino games, and online gambling is the new trend. In Ghana's densely populated slum Nima, the situation is dire.