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Schwestern - Volle Dosis Liebe 5. Ein Wiedersehen fiel nun anders aus als erwartet. Schwestern - Volle Dosis Liebe. RTL II. Schwestern - Volle Dosis Liebe: 15 Episoden ab 5. Darin spielt er den Krankenpfleger Felix Kling. Auf diesem Kanal laufen im deutschen Fernsehen viele bekannte Serien, vor allem Reality-Formate sowie.. RTL 2. Sendung verpasst bei RTL2? Produziert wird die Serie von RedSeven Entertainment.
Insolvenzverwalter: Es wird mehrere Wellen von Pleiten geben. Ab dem 5. Weitere Folgen findest Du unten im Stream. Ganze vier Folgen warten heute Abend auf euch!. Jetzt ist er tot. Wurde Frank Mons aus Duisburg Friemersheim ermordet? Foto: RTL2. Die Forensiker - Profis am Tatort vom Bruder B. Ist doch nicht schlimm. Es kommt auf die Erziehung an. Um Schwestern - Volle Dosis Liebe wird von filmpool entertainment produziert. November - Leipzig: filmpool 15 in 1 Staffel Krass. Die Geissens und Die Reimanns.
Jetzt RTL2 online sehen. Live stream plus station schedule and song playlist. Listen to your favorite radio stations at Streema. RTL2 Sendungen. Den dritten Rang der Hitliste belegt der Pixar-Streifen Die Unglaublichen 2 aus dem Jahr mit 1,24 Milliarden Dollar Het jaar brengt weer een hoop nieuwe tv-programma's met zich mee.
Du hast deine Lieblingssendung verpasst? Doch das ist nur der Anfang. Denn im selben Klinikum arbeitet auch Nora - und die Stationsleiterin hat allen Grund, Ella zu hassen. Dass ich seinen Papa gehen lassen und ihn nicht festgehalten hatte. So sehr die Trucker Babes ihre Arbeit lieben - das Wochenende ist ihnen allen absolut heilig. Diesel-Vamp Mona ist nach einer ereignisreichen Arbeitswoche endlich im Freitag angekommen.
Ecouter Rtl2. Newly excavated materials allowed the authors to exploit the obscurities of the past for the sake of "detection" effect. Despite its ambitions, The Secret Archives of 20th Century, although 21 indisputably setting a new standard for Lithuanian audiovisual historytelling, has not achieved much in terms of problem-raising approach that would complicate he very frame of historical narrative.
In this respect it did not managed to surpass some more modest previous projects, such as The Soviet Hit Men mentioned above. As confirmed by the authors themselves, The Secret Archives of 20th Century was to confirm "the patriotic values", instead of problematising the discourse on which those values depend for their reproduction.
By way of a summary one can say that during the years of regained independence Lithuanian TV producers and filmmakers have tended to avoid potentially controversial topics in or approaches to history Even "sensationalist" ways of presenting historical materials have just recently found their way on the Lithuanian air. Authors of TV programmes as well as filmmakers prefer "safe" topics such as biographies or histories of famous families and their "great services to the country".
A natural consequence of such preferences is too personalised a way of presenting historical events, neglecting more complicated socio-political determinations. Off-screen voice-over is still omnipresent, and rare attempts to introduce a more poly-vocal approach to the national history canon have been met with hostility by the public and "experts" alike.
The visual aspect of history programmes is characterised by static illustrations such as portraits, heraldic symbols etc. The most common method of "historical research" remains interview or visiting places under discussion. Andrijauskas et al. More problematically, these tales have been told in a linear fashion, supported by a mono-logic voice-over, such that no alternative perspectives and no questioning of the "origins" of the very truth transmitted this way is allowed.
IntroductionMass media reflect and at the same time form the historical consciousness of a society. They have an indisputable impact on how a nation perceives its own history. Studying television broadcasting of a country with a totalitarian history can provide an inspiring discovery of how the country's ideology formed its nation's collective memory, what part of this memory persists until the present day, or how it eventually changed throughout the years of transition to democracy.
In this context, Slovakia is quite unique, since as an independent state it had existed only for a short period during World War II March 14, May 8, , and later only from January 1, , this time already with a democratic system of law.
If we look even further back to the history, from the era of Great Moravia 9 th th century -a Slavic state located 'in between the Vistula and Dnieper rivers' -through the times of the Austro-Hungarian Empire all the way to the joint republic of Czechs and Slovaks, the Slovak nation was always a part of some larger entity. This factor inevitably influenced the collective consciousness of Slovaks regarding their history.
Television did not always reflect this collective memory in the same way, not even during the totalitarian era. Nevertheless, in order to be able to say anything relevant regarding the various forms of presenting history by television -first the state-owned, later the public one, and ultimately also by the private channels -we first need to briefly describe the development of TV broadcasting in Slovakia.
Consequently, by analysing the most commonly covered topics and the typical features of Slovak historical programmes, we will attempt to describe how media changed their attitude to history -both the general as well as the Slovak one in particular. At that time, the state-owned Czechoslovak Television had been already broadcasting for several years on the Czech territory. During the first year, the Slovak television studio broadcasted only twice a week and the programme was practically the same as on the Czech television.
By November , the television broadcasted every day except Mondays. Regular daily broadcasting started in , with common programmes for the entire Czechoslovakia and with several Slovak programmes. At that time, there were only Slovak television concessionaires.
It is not really possible to speak of any relation to history or style of its presentation by television during this period: television was focused on the here and now, being dominated by live broadcasts from sport events, drama performances or concerts. Broadcasting also included children's and youth programs, non-fiction popular nature or travel programmes. History was covered only occasionally, namely in TV news when Czechoslovakia was commemorating some anniversary.
During the s and the early s, the program structure was set, although with still too many irregularities. Documentary series were often broadcasted one episode per month, or they just vanished after the first episode, only to reappear several months later. During this period, television from time to time offered Western-European movies, especially French, set in the World War II era, or other historic periods. However, historical films of Eastern European production dominated, namely from Russia, Hungary and Poland, but also Czechoslovakia.
Historical documentaries and other non-fiction programmes about history were broadcasted mainly on occasions of important anniversaries the 'Victorious February ' , the end of WWII, The Great October Socialist Revolution . In prime-time, documentaries were usually aired on Thursdays, in case of ideological anniversaries in morning times and then also prior to the main evening program that usually consisted of a feature movie related to the anniversary.
In , under the influence and in correspondence with the social and political liberalisation, the Slovak television studios presented -along with certain Western-European features -also some recent films of the Czech and Slovak New Wave movement, and the new Slovak TV fiction production 1. To a certain degree, these programmes included discussion about the then pressing issues, political and cultural events, or about the transformation of The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic into a federation of two separate countries.
Unlike in the s and the first half of s, when historical programmes were clearly dominated by topics of WWII and the liberation, new topics started to surface around -the anniversary of the establishment of the first joint state of Czechs and Slovaks , but also themes of national revival in the 19 th century that led to the establishment of Czechoslovakia. Following the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact armies in August , the television program content became once again ideologically rigid, literally 'normalised'.
Many of the 'Western' features were replaced; mostly by the Soviet, Polish, Hungarian or East German 'ideologically appropriate' films. Yet, some of the Western criminal series or entertainment fiction films were still aired. In the area of movie production for cinemas, the effect of normalisation was felt only after However, television has a significantly shorter reaction time: due to its production conditions and faster pace of production, it is able to respond to political changes much sooner than in the case of movie production for cinemas.
Normalisation had an interesting impact on the entertainment formats. In the s, the You Pass The Verdict! After , audience lost the chance to vote, all people could do was call the studio during the live broadcasting and place questions to the experts. Consensus and democratic discussions were replaced by the paternalistic approach of the communist functionaries.
In the s, the number of the Slovak Television concessionaires was approximately , Starting from the , the Czechoslovak Television was broadcasting on two channels and also partly in colour from February 14, The second channel's offer consisted especially of reprises of old documentary or fiction films.
The broadcasting structure was rather fixed, with fiction films being aired on Friday and Saturday evenings, and documentaries or journalistic programmes in the afternoons. Broadcasting for children and the Young Pioneers was scheduled for mornings or early afternoons. This structure persisted until the end of the s. In the s, it is the programmes' content that is changing rather than the structure: many titles are 'closer' to the audience than in the previous decade.
The number of entertainment programmes, series and features is increasing; the number of cartoons and films for children and the youth has also risen significantly. November and the social, political and economical changes that followed the Velvet Revolution represent a major influence and determining factor in the TV broadcasting transformation.
Since November , the state Czechoslovak Television broadcasted live from public demonstrations in Prague and later in Bratislava, and TV news could finally be broadcasted without censorship. The ideologically significant broadcasts the Army, Police, and Border Guard magazines started to disappear or mutated into specialised magazines. In early s, the broadcasting structure of the Czechoslovak television underwent an important transformation. The Soviet and the East European features and documentaries have been in part replaced by the West European French, British or German or USA features and series, and the amount of the entertaining talk shows, music shows and political satire have grown considerably.
During the first 6 months of the year , the Slovak studios broadcasted many of the old fiction and documentary films that were banned after August In the s, the 1 st channel of the Czechoslovak Television became more or less federal, with common broadcasting for both the Czech and Slovak territories; the 2 nd channel was progressively turned into the channel with two separate nationalised transmissions.
This has been fully applied since September 4, The Czechoslovak Television ceased to exist on December 2, by decree of the Act no. By , the STV encountered numerous problems with adapting its pro-gram structure, production and financing to the new conditions this included the necessity to increase production, as well as to procure modern technologies and, later in the s, to raise the capacity to win back audiences taken away by the private or foreign TVs.
Moreover, the difficulties that the public service STV was struggling with were combined with a complicated political situation. One after another, political parties currently in power tried to "format" STV, to make the financing transparent or even to use it for their political goals. Between and , STV had 13 different managements. In , STV announced a "new start".
Its new director, with experience from private, audience-focused televisions, has reshaped the broadcasting structure -it started to resemble private channels broadcasting it included talk shows, quizzes, series, and blockbuster fiction features. Nevertheless, this commercial transformation concerned only the 1 st STV channel. The 2 nd channel was designed for a rather demanding audience, with its program including quality art movies, archive films, documentaries, culture and art magazines, intellectual evening discussions, etc.
However, criticism of the management appeared soon, complaining about the lack of original Slovak production, both fiction and documentary. The non-fiction programmes rarely ventured beyond the scope of mere TV journalism.
During the s, the cable television network covered the larger Slovak cities; the rest of the concessionaires could take advantage of the satellite broadcasting, later of the IPTV. The digitalisation of TV broadcasting is still in progress. In addition, history of the revolutionary movement Soviet and Czechoslovak and of the Communist Party was regularly presented -TV broadcasted educational documentaries, magazines for students and schoolchildren, teachers or party liners.
Nevertheless, between and , some history programmes about the ancient or modern history appeared occasionally -the focus was places on the 20 th century, or on the national revival movements of the 19 th century this was the case especially towards the end of the s. Surprisingly, programmes on rulers also appear rarely, if we do not take into consideration the infrequently aired 'costume features'. However, within the framework of broadcasting for schoolchildren, highschool students or history teachers, there were certain specialised series educational or methodical , covering larger periods of history.
In general, however, presenting history on TV was -and to the present day remains -very selective. At any rate, while the previous regime strictly determined which periods were appropriate for presentation and commemoration, presenting history today is much more arbitrary.
What is interesting about the portrayal of WWII -the period most frequently covered during the totalitarian regime -is how its topics and motives were repeated, or how they gradually developed. Feature production about WWII from the s was dominated by "front-line" action movies, and later complemented by somewhat more intimate uprising titles; in the s the focus shifted to the perspective of a child protagonist 3.
The more intimate titles include "concentration-camp" films and movies about the Jewish genocide appear only occasionally and mainly in features, not in TV production. Unlike in the case of some historical features that were broadcasted with literally chronic regularity on the occasion of certain anniversaries 5 , holocaust movies never became the 'inventory' of a TV program.
The anniversaries were always the pretext and at the same time the reason for broadcasting historical fiction movies or documentaries. Apart from feature movies, anniversaries were commemorated also by e. On round anniversaries of the end of WWI, Bielik's movie 44 was broadcasted, since it was one of the few movies that dealt with this historic period. In late s and in the first half of s, the nonfiction production covering recent history i.
WWII begins to provide an outlook into the future -damages caused by the war are, in line with the socialist ideology, always presented with hope for better times. Later on, a more commemorative tone prevailed. In , the world commemorated the 25 th anniversary of the end of WWII, and the Eastern Block also the th anniversary of Lenin's birth. Likewise, the 25 th anniversary of the end of the WWII and liberation was commemorated already from January by the Milestones programme about the gradual liberation of Czechoslovak towns and villages -naturally with emphasis on the role of the Soviet Red Army.
Practically the same broadcasting structure appeared 5 years later -with the only difference that the focus was placed on the anniversary of the end of the WWII, since it was 'more round', although the number of Lenin-related programmes was in fact the same. They were just moved from primetime to specialised programmes for teachers and schools. In its own turn, the 30 th anniversary of SNP surprised with a richness of national TV production -especially documentaries and journalistic production.
In , the infinitely repeated cinema movies almost did not appear. All in all, it can be said that throughout the years, anniversaries have also obtained a regular structure: they focused on all age groups -from schoolchildren, through working adults, to the seniors. The fall of the regime in November represented an especially significant milestone in Czechoslovakia's contemporary history.
It brought not only the beginning of a transition to democracy, with its social and economic implications, but also a great revision of history. On November 17, , the Slovak Television broadcasted the same program as it did in to emphasize the difference between the "then and now". However, the 15 th anniversary of the totalitarian regime's fall was reflected differently in the media. In line with its philosophy of the 'new beginning', the public STV wanted to prove it was capable of producing original non-fiction programmes -thus on the occasion of the Velvet Revolution's anniversary, it prepared an entire succession of TV documentaries on the Velvet Revolution: one devoted to the key figures 6 In professional historiography, historians that were banned from publishing started writing again; exiled historians and journalists do so as well.
Ultimately, it can be said that once the revisionist emotions subsided, which oftentimes had a nationalistic or lustration background, professional historiography did not reject pre-November research and its outcomes. What did change was the school outlines for teaching history, as well as the collective perception of individual events from Czechoslovak history in the 20 th century.
Slovakia started studying its totalitarian past slightly later than the Czech Republic. The Nation's Memory Institute was established several years later than its Czech counterpart. This way, the topic of liberation of Czech territory by US troops appeared, the 'Masaryk tradition' was revived, and Christian themes are covered as well. Historical programmes now feature the history of USA and the Western world, history of religions People And Gods, broadcasted in January , as well as numerous Western-European views of the period of totality in Czechoslovakia British documentary Absurdistan aired on November 17, ; the number of movies on Shoah also increased significantly.
Five years later, the public STV did not take so much effort. It had combined the approach used in and , broadcasting the same titles it had produced for the anniversary in , even with the original 'packshot' divide -the large number 15, which was utterly absurd on the 20 th anniversary. In between the documentaries, STV inserted programmes aired in 9. For the young Slovak Republic, or at least for the nationalistic part of its political representation, March 14 became an important anniversary of the first autonomous Slovak State Changes in presenting history on tV after The Velvet Revolution of November had a major impact both on the broadcasting structure and on the programme content.
The first year after the revolution, banned films and documentaries reappeared, the official history was revised, or -especially in the mass media -a "thick black line" between the past and the present was supposed to be drawn, accompanied by the denunciation of the criminal political regime and by "lustration" of new regime's politicians. As a result of the previous, ideologically formatted historiography that had an impact namely on the contemporary history, during the transition period of the , the greatest number of programmes were representations of the 20 th century history not only of the WWII, but of the inter-war period as well, and -a new element -the revision of the period of the s and the s.
However, the number of the original or foreign documentary series on the ancient history and ancient civilisations increased, too. All in all, an increasing diversity of historic programmes can be observed. At the same time, television's strategy of that time can also be identified: to air reprises of ideologically acceptable films produced or purchased already prior to , to broadcast new acquisitions with current topics, to offer a different view of own history, but also that of the WWII, or to produce own original movies, series or teleplays as soon as possible After , majority of films about history are produced namely by private productions 11 ; the public television produces first and foremost journalistic or discussion shows, usually related to anniversaries.
However, STV now refrains from producing features, or popular-history or historic-memory series that became typical for Czech Television's production. Despite this situation, STV remains the only television purchasing and broadcasting original author features or original historical series. The private Slovak channels do not produce any original history programmes. Also, their broadcasting of foreign history programmes is more or less accidental; if there are any historical fictions or series broadcasted historical non-fiction is very rare on private channels , they are usually bought from the foreign televisions.
The only exceptions are the archive Czech and Slovak films, broadcasted by a commercially oriented private channel, e. The private news channel TA3 has no special history broadcasting, and it does not produce any historical documentaries; however, on the occasion of historic anniversaries, it usually puts together historians, political scientists or sociologists with a TV anchor, offering a TV discussion in the framework of 'The Theme of the Day' broadcasting.
The ancient history appears in the Slovak broadcasting mainly thanks to the Hollywood history fiction features. Yet, the documentary series on ancient civilisations of the Greek or Roman Empires or on Far East civilizations, even a digest of the European history, may appear from time to time on the public 11 Filmmakers begin to shoot their movies in 'self-production' -establishing their own production companies, obtaining finances partially from Culture Ministry's funds the Pro Slovakia fund, since the Audiovisual Fund , from the third sector, or looking for foreign coproducers for their films.
The public Czech Television offers favourable conditions namely for documentarists; to certain extent also other foreign televisions. By way of a conclusion, we may make a slight exaggeration -the Slovak channels present either the ancient history, or the history of the 20 th century, nothing in between… audience response to history programmesThere are very few original academic studies covering the issues related to television audiences.
Certain sociologic surveys were made on the Slovak film audiences, but no relevant study exists about the Slovak television spectators and their response to the history programmes. The monitoring of TV program audience rates in households is made by means of the so-called "People Meters" that have been used in Slovakia since In a certain way, the newspapers reviews or online articles on television programmes reveal audience reactions in the internet forums, but they are rarely a subject of studies or analyses.
That is why this section will focus only on several specific examples of audience responses to historical programmes that have appeared in mass media during the past couple of years. In comparison with the Czech Republic, there is still a considerable lack of audiovisual productions that would systematically reflect on the period between and While the public Czech Television has produced documentary series about recent history persecution of different social groups in the s, the samizdat and the dissent during the normalisation period, or the culture and film in the s, that had or still have an important impact on the public , in Slovakia there are only rather sporadic contributions in this area.
Production of these documentaries served rather as a proof that the Slovak Television really does produce original documentaries The Slovak Television announced that, before and after the screening of the series, there would be a discussion with historians about the accuracy of the presentation of the past, but eventually STV used only an information cartoon prior to each part of the series, stating that this presentation of the past is outdated and influenced by the political regime during which the series was produced.
It was not followed by any intense reactions in newspapers or discussions forums. The premiere was set for June In May , the director general of the public STV refused to broadcast it, declaring the film was unfinished. In reaction to this statement, an internal screening was held and the film was proclaimed complete. The director general still insisted on cancelling the film's premiere, justifying it by the anti-Semitic assertions of one of the film's protagonists.
After many 12 In February , prior to the election of STV's director general, the Slovak documentary filmmakers made an official appeal to the Slovak Television Council to increase the original documentary production within the public television, where it was literally in agony. The appeal caused explosive reactions in STV, which assured the public that over original documentaries, magazines or non-fiction series were in production or post-production, one of them was the Magical Eight series.
STV director took the council's appeal as a simple recommendation, and the film was not broadcasted. STV refused to broadcast Wild Dogs, probably because of the negative image that the film was supposed to make of the Russian nation and its culture. The film reveals communist atrocities by means of re-montage of archive footage newsreels and instructional police films and using the victims' testimonies.
In addition, The Paper Heads was furtively drawing a parallel between the practices of the communist establishment from before and those of the political representation in power in It was mainly this analogy that caused the most intense public reactions. It is very characteristic that all of these films somehow relate to the portrayal of Slovakia's post-war history, or to the revision of the communist historiography.
On one hand, this demonstrates the fact that the most controversial are those periods whose protagonists are still alive, but on the other hand it reflects the continued interest of the media in the most recent history. However, the costume films -attractive for the audience and usually produced by large US productions -are less numerous than the Czech and Slovak films about the recent or more distant history.
This fact is most probably caused by the 'ostalgia' that some private channels rely on, especially the JOJ Plus. In its broadcasting, this channel even resurrected the profession of a TV presenter, which the public TV cancelled due to financial reasons in s. Even though there are not so many Czech and Slovak historical movies produced during the past 20 years, it only increases their audience rates Practically all historical films that are broadcasted on Slovak channels were produced by independent private studios or co-produced by the Czech public television and were primarily designed for movie cinemas.
In addition, they practically all deal with the topic of WWII and the period of the s up to the so called "normalisation" or the "real socialism". By far the most favourite and at the same time the most efficient TV article are the reprises of the 'pre-November' features and series. Documentaries and series form a special group that we look upon individually, as it is primarily designed for a 'more demanding audience,' which is why the private, commercially focused televisions practically do not broadcast this type of production.
Thus, the only channel that both broadcasts and occasionally produces this category of films is the public STV. The non-fiction movies and series are primarily aired on the more intellectually focused Dvojka. Its program is dominated by foreign series about the turbulent history of the 20 th century, war conflicts, terrorism, political assassinations, etc. They are usually popular-education montage documentaries with a voice-over commentary and 'talking heads' of experts, e.
Sometimes they also reuse a voice-over commentary, when it is necessary to relate to a different topic or to explain the historical and political context that is not evident from the testimonies. The film's historical supervisor was Yehuda Bauer; the documentary presents plenty of unseen archive footage.
The role of the commentary is important here, therefore the most precious elements of the film are interviews with the Jewish resistance members, and the confrontation of their testimonies. Films by Peter Kerekes are one of the rare art documentaries. The use of archives here has a strong aesthetic dimension: in his 66 Seasons for instance, Kerekes is projecting private archive footage on the water-table of a swimming pool to show the liquidity and virtual nature of memory.
There is no voice over commentary, the testimonies come from the dialogue with the director and from the film medium itself reconstruction and re-enactments with a retro pattern is used to simulate the period the survivors are talking about. Except for the fiction movies and historical documentaries, Dvojka also airs regular weekly reprises of year-old film newsreels in Slovakia, newsreels vanished from movie theatres only in , despite the existence of the daily TV news at 7 p.
Apart from with the reprises of the old newsreels, there is currently no 19 It was only recently that I learned from a personal interview with the director that the title towards the end of the film is misleading. From time to time, especially on occasion of anniversaries, cycles of TV documentaries are shown, as it was done for the 20 th anniversary of the Velvet Revolution in November But these documentary cycles, such as the Historical Panorama, can consist of quite heterogeneous documentaries and are broadcasted at various times and days of the week.
Nevertheless, the "shape" of a typical Slovak or even Czech documentaries remains invariant: usually they use the same voice for the voiceover commentary, they use all of them the same STV archive footage and very interchangeable interviews with participants, politicians, historians or politics science experts. Each topic, before being discussed, is also presented by a short video usually from TV News, or an archive newsreels.
Slovak discussions and panels are introduced by a TV anchor, but the discussions are quite "rigid," within only historians' discussions. Prior to , there were programmes such the Historical Calendar or History of the Small Mechanised Muse that used clips of archive footage and a voice-over commentary, plus an anchor. This kind of programmes is not produced anymore, thus the same principle is used for programmes like Reporters, which is dealing with contemporary issues, political affairs or economical problems.
Presentation of history programmes or their introduction to the audience by a TV anchor accompanied by experts -historians or film theoristswas experimentally introduced by STV's Dvojka in and Reprises of old films or documentaries were introduced by short, 3 to 5 minutes long presentations of a "talking head" accompanied by a subtitle with the person's name and profession.
For economical reasons, the reprises are now broadcasted without any introduction. After , the Slovak historiography revised the way of presenting past events, but also of selecting historical topics. Practically all school history textbooks were declared to be ideologically incorrect and were gradually replaced with new ones. Historical research focused on the so-far uncovered problems or periods especially the totalitarian era, the history of the persecuted groups, the history of representations….
Despite this fact, the "thick dividing line", so often mentioned by the media, separating Slovakia history into that before and after , did not materialise in research. Many works remain relevant to the present day, even though their rhetoric or some specific parts bear the mark of the previous regime. The same tendency can be observed on TV: some films or documentaries that were often broadcasted simply vanished.
The new TV documentaries then focused on new topics: many of them were portrayals of people persecuted by the previous regime priests, intellectuals, kulaks, bourgeois, etc. But while historians continued to present results of their research, the public television, due to its economical transformations, produced less and less new history programmes and preferred to draw on its archives, especially in case of fiction films. However, transformation of methods and approaches in historiography has its equivalent in the history programmes production: interest in the small, private history is strongly present in both of them.
In historiography, the method of the oral history is often applied, in documentary production, there is an upsurge of intimate, testimonial films and films reusing the private archives footage. In the textual historiography, there is a plethora of research on propaganda and the history of representations.
This has no equivalent in TV history, maybe with the exception of reprises of the old film newsreels or the old TV news. But there is a great tendency to use them to increase the "ostalgia" on TV. This inevitably leads to formulating a side-note on the fact that Slovak television including the public STV , despite its inevitable influence on retention and changes of the collective memory, follows first and foremost the marketing and media strategies that secure its audience rates.
Naturally, these strategies more or less also form the nation's memory, however, this influence is much less targeted and considerably less researched. This text is only a first draft from a series of studies about presenting history in the Slovak TV broadcasting. It is impossible to provide an exhausting and thorough report on just a couple of pages, with each reduction or limitation possibly leading to misrepresentation. Therefore, this general outline does not include details on the transformation of TV broadcasting after , rather, it focuses on and prefers continuity of historiography and media history to partial overviews of the individual programmes, which focus predominantly on entertainment and only accidentally on presenting history.
The goal of this text is to provide an overview, not an analysis. In order to offer an analysis, it would be necessary to literally "dig through" the TV archives. Which will be the next stage of our research. The Czech Lands 4 could not compete with their western neighbour as concerns the size of the market and commercial strength, but in terms of the status of the media, they traditionally belonged to highly advanced regions of Europe.
Thus for instance the first public broadcasts of the Czech radio station Radiojournal went. In the s, the Czech media industry had at its disposal a viable structure of synergically interconnected audio-visual, sound and printed media, similarly to other industrial countries of Europe 5. But unlike Germany, 3 Petr Szczepanik, Konzervy se slovy…, Hence the different level of the media development in the initial decades following the disintegration of the monarchy.
Apart from the at first cautious, though serious interest of the state and the inadequate commercial strength of Czechoslovak investors, no small role was also played by the political situation of the time when the sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic was threatened by Nazi Germany. The plans for television broadcasting were definitively thwarted by the Nazi occupation and the Second World War.
Soon after the end of the war, the television project began to assume much more clear-cut contours. The technology proper could be speedily installed inter alia thanks to the fact that following the liberation of Czechoslovakia, Czech engineers made use of some of the know-how of several formerly German companies which had participated in the television broadcasting research carried out in the Sudetenland.
It was not until April that the Czechoslovak Government unexpectedly issued a decree charging the Ministry of Telecommunications with responsibility for the construction and operation of radio and television technical equipment 8. In the summer of the same year, a committee was set up at the Government Presidium to deal with technical issues, coordinate television broadcasting and task individual state industrial sectors manufacturing transmitters and receivers, ensuring transmission and developing camera tubes Comparing with countries which have access to the sea, Czechoslovakia as a landlocked country had and still has at its disposal only a limited number of terrestrial broadcasting frequencies.
The second channel of Czechoslovak Television nonetheless went on the air in In the second channel started broadcasting in colour, and in colour programmes appeared on the first channel as well. The third channel, the frequency of which had been kept free in the preceding years for the needs of the Soviet occupation army, went on the air in May , several months before the political changes in our country The essential milestone in the history of Czech television broadcasting was the year of , the date of the establishment of independent Slovak and later Czech Televisions; the existing Czechoslovak Television continued operating the first channel.
Act no. Czechoslovak Television ceased to exist as of 31 st December, , with the split-up of Czechoslovakia The first licence for the operation of private television broadcasting was 4. A real breakthrough was the appearance of the first nationwide commercial television TV NOVA, which started broadcasting in February Its attractive programmes and excessively benevolent legislation helped it win the interest of masses of viewers, but also led to many future protracted litigations between the Czech state and international investors who accused it of failing to protect their investments.
The second half of the s can no doubt be called an era of commercial television, while the public Czech Television struggled to find its identity, manoeuvring between its duty of public service and the need to achieve a rating high enough to attract buyers of advertising time. It was launched at an experimental level in , and at the same time, a heightened interest in the acquisition of satellite and cable transmission licences was observable, with private investors clearly planning to acquire nationwide digital frequencies in the future.
The CSFILM channel emerged inter alia see below , and truly nationwide digitalization was gradually taking place in individual regions from July till October In the second part of last decade, a noticeable shift also occurred in the till then rather limited attempts to interconnect television broadcasting with state-of-the-art telecommunication technologies. In , O2, the largest Czech telecommunication operator, launched a commercially successful project of multimedia services including IPTV and Video on demand The Czech Television has also adopted in recent years a very progressive strategy of disseminating its contents by means of the internet.
On its web site it currently offers an extensive audiovisual archive, including a complete programme of newscasts, but also programmes protected by copyright, documentary films of independent producers etc Experiments with paid streaming of the complete range of Czech Television broadcasts were conducted in and discontinued The activities of Czech Television also have an impact on private operators of terrestrial television broadcasting, but so far only to a limited extent The Czech media scene is still waiting for its first strong purely internet television.
It is obvious that the foreseeable future of television broadcasting in the Czech Republic, as in other countries, will be characterized by interlinking telecommunication and television services with modern technologies HDTV broadcasting, D3-stereoscopic television etc. Currently most Czech viewers can choose from 4 broadcasting television multiplexes with 11 nationwide channels broadcasting terrestrially in the Czech language They include III.
But the opposite model applies, too: on many occasions, television became an active tool of shaping the nation's history. While in the period of the First Republic television broadcasting on a nonstate whether private or public basis was contemplated as well, after this variant was unthinkable.
Even though the post-war Czechoslovak Republic then was not yet a communist country, the influence of radically leftist concepts of cultural policy was practically absolute And as early as the summer of , that means a mere couple of months after the end of World War II, the Czechoslovak film industry was nationalized, according to wartime plans. From then on, all sorts of film-relating business were to be possible solely within the frame of the state monopoly.
Czech and Slovak theatres were nationalized, too, as were other types of cultural institutions. Therefore it is not surprising that the regime counted with television as a potentially powerful propaganda instrument only provided it was put under state control.
What is certain is the fact that they took place at many different levels, starting with jamming the broadcasts of 'problematic' programmes and ending with removals and replacements of the Czechoslovak Television management. In , Czech and Slovak households altogether already possessed one million television sets 22 , to which were added each subsequent year, and by the end of the s their number climbed to as many as three million Together with the radio, television became the most important mass medium in the country.
The swift widening of the range of television broadcasting coincided with the far reaching democratizing changes in the s, which culminated in the Prague Spring and were violently suppressed in by the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Treaty armies. The above-described two-way influencing of historical events in Czechoslovakia and the developments in the Czechoslovak Television was particularly evident in periods of political escalation. During the uprising of Prague's inhabitants against the Nazis in May , it was the radio, as 22 the chief mass medium, which directly intervened in the historical event: most blood was shed in its defence.
In case of the occupation in August , the influence of the radio and television on the historical event was balanced. They broadcast from secret temporary studios which were gradually exposed during live transmission and silenced by the occupation troops, until the transmission routes were completely cut off. The resumption of Czech Television broadcasting on the 4 th of September, met with a huge viewer response. From their very beginning, the post-occupation broadcasts were subjected to heavy censorship The reinstallation of neo-Stalinist cadres 25 and the onset of the so-called 'normalization' further curtailed the freedom of expression.
But because of the prevailing mood in society, it was being clipped little by little. Quick and immediate were interventions in the coverage of current affairs, while artistic creation was not affected very much in the first wave of suppression. Still in January the television covered the suicide committed by the philosophy student Jan Palach in protest against the changes in society in the aftermath of the occupation Palach's funeral, covered live by the television, became one of the last national demonstrations against the occupiers.
In March , the Czechoslovak Television mediated for its viewers the euphoria of the whole nation when the Czech squad beat the Soviets at the World Ice-hockey Championship. But in August , it already reported on the protests on the occasion of the first anniversary of the occupation entirely in the spirit of the normalization propaganda In the s and s, Czechoslovak Television was absolutely the most important means of government propaganda.
The emphasis which the establishment placed on the contents of television broadcasts was connected with a general trend in society -a departure from the public to the private spheres, and also growing consumerism, supported by the regime.
The television set became a matter-of-fact part of the equipment of households, weekend cottages, pubs and restaurants which, with few exceptions, obligatorily closed at 10 p. Another reason why the rating of Czechoslovak Television was so high in these decades was the shortage of other opportunities for the population to enjoy their leisure. As regards genre preferences, the television as well as the film output of that time, an effort of the makers to depart from topical to escapist, historical or so-called timeless themes is observable.
As we will see below, they sometimes came up against bans imposed by the dramaturgy management. Propaganda dominated newscasts and commentaries, but also documentary programmes and fiction, including historical serials in which the communist regime made use of the proclaimed concept of historiography The process of the so-called glasnost and perestroika, which started in the Eastern bloc countries in the mids, was becoming reflected in Czechoslovak Television programmes at a very slow pace.
And it is symptomatic that the television kept more or less silent about the earliest moments of the Velvet Revolution. The key role was played by a rumour about the death of one of the students, spread in good faith mainly by the exile Radio Free Europe. Meanwhile a struggle of the employees for impartiality of informing about the events in the capital city erupted in Czechoslovak Television.
The first uncensored newscast could be watched by its viewers on the 26 th of November, The timely lifting of censorship no doubt contributed to the smooth progress of political changes in Czechoslovakia in One of the last examples of Czech Television becoming itself an active co-creator of history was the so-called television crisis at the turn of and The conflict between its employees and its management caused by political pressure on the choice of persons to fill the managerial posts once again sent hundreds of thousands of people to the streets.
But borrowed feature films and documentaries were predominant. The historical genre, mediated by such borrowed programmes, thus appeared in the Czech and Slovak television broadcasting scheme already in the first months of broadcasting A further number of genres appeared in the second half of the s: newscasts, commentaries and educational programmes. Regular daily newscasts started in In , Czech Television broadcast the first part of the first Czech fiction-type TV serial, but all serials presented till were void of historical elements During the Prague Spring the Czech society started, among other things, to take interest in events of recent past which had been either suppressed completely by the totalitarian regime or the official information about them was had been strongly biased.
The documentary and journalistic production in the s and s was characterized by a return to the traditional ideological frames of depicting history. Historical events were mostly commemorated on the occasion of various anniversaries. Those promoted by the regime were mostly connected with the history of the Communist Party, the workers' movement, the communist putsch in and similar events in other countries the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, the first manned space flight etc.
A significant genre, which well documents the ideological development of the presentation of history, is that of feature fiction serial. It is a profiling genre, demanding in terms of production and cost, which the Czechoslovak Television intended to offer at prime-time, and into which both the makers and the ideological supervisors were logically prepared to invest great energy. Of the Czech serials and mini-series about the events of produced by Czechoslovak Television, 34 can be called historical The statistics make it clear that as concerns television serials, the most fruitful period was that between and In to , on the contrary, the television dramaturgy left historical serials out of its calculation.
We still know little about the causes of their total disappearance from the production plans of Czechoslovak Television, because no detailed historical studies relating to this period have been undertaken so far. It narrates the story of two entrepreneurial families during the second stage of national revival from to Apart from the family peripeteias, the main theme of the serial is the crystallization of the Czech bourgeoisie within the frame of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
Most of the protagonists are fictitious or loosely modelled after real historical personages. But renowned figures of Czech history are also directly present in the story, seen from the angle of vision of the middle-class Czech family. The script was written by Otto Zelenka. This serial belongs to the best ever produced in our country. Starting in , the presentation of history in Czech serials was gradually returning to the concept of Marxist historiography.
The authors of historical serials were forced to promote the totalitarian regime. In the second half of the s, an increasing share of serials were coproduced with western televisions, and an ideological slant was naturally undesirable in their case. A single, compulsory concept of historiography was replaced by a number of approaches and methods. This change was followed by a dramatic upswing of the historical genre, which still continues.
Growing interest of televisions in presenting historical programmes has been observable particularly in the past few years. The reasons are no doubt many and varied -major anniversaries in recent years, the trendiness of retro genres, or sufficient time distance from the collapse of the totalitarian regime. When we try to identify the main or significant elements of contents and form which are linked with the image of history, we can define several clearly profiled genre and thematic groups of historical programmes.
As for format, the full-range CT1 channel focuses on the majority viewer and tries to compete by its offer with private televisions. CT1 presents all historical epochs which are currently popular -from antiquity to the revolutionary events of It does so through borrowed feature films mostly of Czech, American, British, French and Italian make , but also serials and dramas of its own production.
Serials, drama productions and films produced directly by Czech Television portray all epochs, most often modern history. These products frequently But even in the mainstream production we can find a group of works the main goal of which is to reflect history. In an overwhelming majority of Czech fictions of this type, it is reflection of the totalitarian Protectorate or communist past.
So far its depiction is, perhaps without exception, deliberately set off against the communist ideology of the preceding period. The moderator of the series is the famous folk singer Jaroslav Hutka, who spent a part of his life in exile himself. In terms of production, the so-called 'independent documentaries' 40 are more ambitious projects as a rule, often designed for further distribution in cinemas and at festivals, in the form of DVDs etc.
Their form is authorial and very diverse, as is their length. They often deal with similar topics as the primarily television documentaries, but also draw attention to new issues or use novel ways of their treatment. Of all their authors, let us mention three renowned documentary makers who work with historical themes in an idiosyncratic manner. Pfitzner Diary -a detailed portrait of an apolitical university teacher and later the Nazi Mayor of Prague, composed solely of archive material and commentaries.
In these documentaries, history is treated as not the primary subject, but a secondary value of depicting the present which has in the meantime become the past. This manner of presenting history facilitates the highest possible authenticity. Apart from the life stories of the protagonists, direct representation of everyday life, of the mentality of young people 30 years ago, the social aspects of life in the given period etc. At the same time, in the case of most Czech feature films and a number of documentaries, Czech Television is a co-producer.
The commentators, as a rule joined by three or four historians, debate on selected topics, often of a character relevant to the current situation.
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