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Mercer discovered that he had the fight of his life on hand to secure passage. On the request of the Directors, Mr. President Wattles went to Washington to endeavor to assist as he might in passage of the bill. President Wattles having returned from Washington and the Directors feeling again the need of a special representative there, that Mr. Mercer could be aided in any additional way possible, the Directors requested Ex-Senator Chas.

Manderson and Hon. Edward Rosewater to go to Washington. Rosewater started at once on May 7th, ; Mr. Manderson was unable to leave the city at the time. Opportunity for passage of bill by congress was now felt to be assured, but vexations obstacles prevented and annoying delays ensued, and as the session was fast drawing toward its close, the fear of non success was strong, and great anxiety was felt over the situation.

It was expected that the bill would be called up for passage early in May, and again at several later dates in May. It was assured that recognition of Speaker Reed would be secured permitting the placing of the bill before the House for passage,but all of no avail; one obstacle after another intervened, and the anxiety grew greater, notwithstanding the able assistance of Senators Allison and Gear of Iowa, Senators Allan and Thurston of Nebraska, of practically the whole Iowa and Nebraska delegations and their friends, the situation could not be improved, nor the desired opportunity secured.

A demand upon the speaker for a set day met with no response. It was only watch and wait. On June 5th Mr. Mercer found his opportunity. The request for consent to place the bill on its passage was made, when lo! Kem, sent to the House of Congress to represent the wishes and desires of the Sixth 6th Congressional district of Nebraska. Yet who in this case frightfully misrepresented them, as the rain of denunciatory telegrams from his district fully demonstrated to him, but stubborn to the last he kept up his opposition and aided not in passing the bill.

On June 9th at p. Mercer again secured recognition by the speaker, but again he was doomed to disappointment, for Mr. Bailey of Texas objected, as he said from conscientious motives, to unanimous consent to consider the bill. It now looked like sure defeat as Congress was scheduled to adjourn the following day.

But on June 10th recognition was again secured, and Mr. Kem having left for home, and Mr. Bailey being absent at lunch unanimous consent was secured, the bill passed, hurried over to the Senate, which body Senator Allan had held in session purposely, the amended bill was passed by the Senate, was finally engrossed, taken at once by Mr. Mercer to the President, Hon. Grover Cleveland and at once signed, and thus became a law after one of the most memorable struggles in Congress.

Speaker Thos. Reed stated that no bill that he knew of had been so well exploited as was this one; that the bombardment of Congress was not only courteous and of good and convincing argument but that it had been continuous, never letting up from the early beginning to the final passage of the bill and signing it by the President. Be it also, yet without the untiring, indefatigable, indomitable, yet urbane and polite efforts of Hon.

Mercer, aided and assisted though he was by many others, the Congressional bill would not have passed and there would not have been an Exposition to need and deserve a history. The news of the passage of Congressional bill released the tension of anxiety, and cheerfulness and confidence in ultimate success prevailed generally. On June 13th, , Council Bluffs had a great celebration parade with music, fireworks and speeches and good cheer was on every hand. The Commercial Club of Omaha took up and arranged for a grand civic demonstration in honor of the passage of the bill and in honor of the men who secured its passage, this was planned to and did take place on the evening of Friday, June 26th, A procession several miles long and composed of many military and civic organizations added to the splendor of the demonstration, and the booming of cannon, setting off of fireworks, and the music of many bands, supplied the embellishments of a great occasion.

It seemed indeed that everybody was there, and the route of the procession and Jefferson Square, where the speaking occurred were packed with those who came to see and cheer. The parade was under the direction of Grand Marshal Robt. Wilcox, and starting at p. On request of Chas. Wattles of the Exposition presided. With a few complimentary words he introduced Nebraska's Governor, Hon.

Silas A. Holcomb, who was greeted with applause and spoke briefly in congratulation. He was followed by Hon. Mercer, who was greeted by loud and long applause, really an ovation. He complimented the management of the Board of Directors and those who so ably assisted them and in conclusion presented President Wattles with the pen with which President Cleveland signed the Exposition bill.

Senator W. Allan was cheered vigorously and continuously for some minutes when next introduced. His speech was felicitous and complimentary to Omaha and its enterprise. Letters and telegrams of regret were read from Gov. Richards of Wyoming, Gov. McIntyre of Colorado, Gov. Sheldon of South Dakota, U. Senators W. Allison and John H. Gear of Iowa, John M.

Thurston of Nebraska, Congressman W. Andrews, E. Hainer and O. Kem of Nebraska, D. Henderson, Thos. Updegraff, Geo. Perkins, Robt. Cousins, S. Clark, John C. Lacey, J. Dollivar, Geo, M. Curtis of Iowa, Ex-Congressman W. Bryan of Nebraska, Hon. Joy of Mo. Furnas of Brownville, Nebraska was introduced as a man who had been working on Exposition in Nebraska for a half century past. He responded in his usual happy manner, and was followed by Hon.

John N. Baldwin of Council Bluffs, Iowa, who delivered the oration of the evening, an eloquent address, thoroughly western in spirit and it was received with great enthusiasm. Ex-Senator Chas. Manderson spoke next; he grew reminiscent and compared the parade of a mere handful of people in celebrating the completion of the Union Pacific Railway with the parade of the present occasion.

He addressed complimentary remarks to those who had been instrumental in passing the bill. He was especially complimentary to President Wattles whom he styled the "inspiriting soul of the enterprise, a man endowed with energy, character, and all the elements of true manhood. Van Dusen of South Omaha followed. Wattles gave assurance of South Omaha's great interest and its fullest support to the Exposition. John Doniphan, Vice President for Missouri, was the next speaker.

He Spoke briefly, being reminded of the fact that ninety two years ago on the site of Council Bluffs, Ia. This being the last speech, the audience adjourned with a rousing three cheers and a tiger for the Exposition and its promoters at home and in Congress. Now that the great object sought, national recognition, approval and participation, had been pledged and the enthusiasm following this success had settled to strong resolve to go forward to ultimate success, it was determined by the management that the scope of the work should be broadened and the business men of the city be called upon to lend their best efforts in the work and particularly toward securing the stick subscriptions required by Congress.

A meeting of merchants and citizens was called at the Commercial Club rooms on the evening of June 18th, , and the rooms were packed with representative citizens and the utmost enthusiasm prevailed, many speeches were made - all favorable. The result of the meeting was the adoption by unanimous vote, amid great cheering of the following:"Resolved, that it is the sense of this meeting that the Directors of the Exposition proceed with the work outlined, at their discretion, and that we pledge to them the hearty support of the business men and capitalists of the city.

The Board of Directors met on June 19th, , and it was decided to call a meeting on July 20th, by invitation, of citizens to serve as a Bureau of Finance for the Exposition. Such Board of Directors shall elect a President, Vice President, a Treasurer and a Secretary, the duties of which officers shall be fixed by the Board.

Such officers shall be elected from among the Directors or other stockholders. Such Board of Directors shall also elect from its number, an Executive Committee of not less than five or more than nine, which said Executive Committee shall have all the powers of the Board of Directors when said Board is not in session, and shall choose a chairman from their own number.

There shall be twenty-four additional Vice-Presidents, one for each state and Territory west of the Mississippi River, who shall be the same persons heretofore chosen by this Corporation as heretofore organized. The Board of Directors shall have authority to appoint such other officers, agents, servants, employees, committees or Boards as they may deem necessary for the conduct of the business of the Corporation, and they may from time to time prescribe the duties of all such appointees in such manner as they may deem best.

The Board of Directors shall have authority to delegate to any subordinate committee or Board, such duties as the Board itself might otherwise exercise. The Directors, when elected, shall serve during the life of this Corporation, and shall have powers to fill vacancies in their numbers caused by death, resignation or other reason, and may for cause expel any member of said Board. We recommend that Article VIII of the Articles of Incorporation be amended by substituting for the first sentence thereof, the following words:.

We recommend that Article XI of the Articles of Incorporation be amended by striking out the following words:. We report that of the two subscription papers containing the subscriptions of the stock already made to this Corporation, the paper compromising the greater number and amount of subscriptions is not in legal form and does not give the subscribers whose names are attached thereto the status of the share-holders in the Corporation, and we recommend that such subscriptions be re-taken in due form and that the form of subscription employed be uniform in all cases.

We recommend that the changes heretofore outlined in the Articles of Incorporation and in the form of subscriptions to stock, be required by this Committee of Twenty-four as a condition precedent to the acceptance by this committee of its appointment and to the work of raising further subscriptions. We recommend that upon the completion of the reorganization of the Corporation, as herein outlined, the action of the Corporation in creating the present Bureau of Finance be rescinded to the end that the Corporation may take such action regarding the division of the work of said Corporation as may be desired.

This report was submitted to the Directors and considered by them on June 27th, and it was ordered that a meeting of the stockholders be called to meet on Friday, July 10th, , to consider and vote upon amendments to the Articles of Incorporation. At the meeting of the stockholders in July 10th, , shares of stock being present and voting, the Articles of Incorporation were changed by vote as follows:.

Such Board of Directors shall elect a President, a vice-president, a treasurer and a secretary, the duties of which officers shall be fixed by the board. Such officers shall be elected from among the directors or other stockholders.

Such board of directors shall also elect from its number an executive committee of not less than five 5 nor more than nine 9 , which said executive committee shall have all the powers of the board of directors when said board is not in session, and shall choose a chairman from their own number.

There shall be twenty-four additional vice-presidents one 1 for each state and territory west of the Mississippi river. The board of directors shall have authority to appoint such other officers, agents, servants, employees, committees or boards as they may deem necessary for the business of the Corporation, and they may from time to time prescribe the duties of all such appointees in such manner as they may deem best.

The board of directors shall have authority to delegate to any subordinate Committee or board, such duties as the board itself might otherwise exercise. The directors when elected shall serve during the life of this corporation, and shall have power to fill vacancies in their numbers caused by death, resignation or any other reason, and may for cause expel any member of said board by a two-thirds vote of the entire board.

Notice of said meeting shall be given to said stockholders and stock subscribers by publication in the daily papers of Omaha at least two days before the time fixed for holding said meeting," and the last sentence of the Article was amended to read as follows:. The Committee appointed to act as a Bureau of Finance then met and considered this action, and decided to accept same, upon agreement that following form of subscription blank be adopted and used:.

We, the undersigned, hereby subscribe each for himself, and not one for another, and agree to pay for capital stock in the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, a corporation organized "to provide for holding, beginning in the month of June and ending in the month of November in the year , within or near the city of Omaha, in Douglas County, Nebraska, an exposition of all the products, industries and civilization of the States and Territories of the United States of America, west of the Mississippi River, and also such exhibits as may be provided by the United States, or any State in the United States, or any foreign country, for the purpose particularly of exhibiting to the world, the products, industries and capabilities generally of the States and Territories west of the Mississippi River," equal to the amounts hereinafter written opposite our names respectively; payment to be made at such times and such installments as may be called for by the Board of Directors.

Provided, that not more than ten 10 per cent. The Legislature of the State of Louisiana being in session in June and early July, the Directors decided that an effort should be made to secure the cooperation of that state. A delegation comprising of President Wattles, Thos. Kilpatrick, Judge Macomber and Jas. Sheehan proceeded to Baton Rouge, La. July 3rd, Too late to secure direct appropriation, but concurrent resolution has just passed both houses, authorizing the Bureau of Agriculture to make an exhibit, and pledging the state to pay for same.

Louisiana was therefore the third state to officially recognize and direct that the state be represented at the Exposition. It is much regretted that Louisiana was prevented, subsequently, from making a showing of exhibits at the Exposition.

Attention was now given especially to the work of securing subscriptions, the work was mapped out, Committees appointed and the campaign proceeded with vigor and success. On Sept. The Directors therefore ordered that an assessment of Five 5 per cent be made on the capital stock subscribed, payable prior to six o'clock p. There were present in addition to the full directory, Mssrs. Manderson, Thos, Kilpatrick, C.

Lyman, John S. Brady, Arthur C. Smith, A. Recotr, Wm. Redick, E. Andriesen, M. Barlow, J. Millard, C. Kountze, W. Paxton, H. Cady, C. Weller, F. Kirkendall, C. Yost, Edward Rosewater, O. Holmes, John Powers, W. Marsh, A. Reed, E. Bruce, Sam'l Katz, Louis Huggins and others.

Manderson, as spokesman, stated that owing to the closeness of the times, the excitement attending the campaign relating to the coming national elections, debates on the money situation, and the fact that some individuals and corporations that should subscribe largely to the Exposition, would not do so, until after the November elections, and yet desired a voice in the election of the Board of Directors, and was therefore aid that might be altogether lost if election of Board of Directors was held, as now proposed and called, that, therefore the gentlemen present desired to request that the proposed election of Directors be deferred until some date in November , say November 10th.

The request was discussed, and a Directors' meeting was at once convened, and Mr. Montgomery offered the following which was adopted:. Resolved, That the call for the stockholders meeting to be held October 1st, , for the election of a Board of Directors, fifty 50 in number, be rescinded and withdrawn, and that the said stockholders meeting be postponed to and held on Tuesday, the First day of December, at seven o'clock p.

Meanwhile, other promotive work had been pushed, and particularly the efforts to induce the holding of annual meetings of large organizations, conventions, congresses, fraternal national meetings, etc. The Governors of States in most of the Trans-Mississippi Territory had appointed their State Vice-Presidents, and the correspondence and circular work had grown to large proportions, and the influences favoring the Exposition were ever widening and spreading. The newspapers of the country generously published information regarding the project, and a firm basis for the enterprise was being constantly strengthened.

River Railway Co. This information was greeted with cheers of acclaim, for now the ice was broken that overlapped the subscriptions of the various Railway Companies, the Burlington system being the first to uncover and send in its subscription, and it was confidently predicted that the other lines entering Omaha would soon follow the good example of the Burlington lines.

It had been a matter of grave concern to the management that all efforts to persuade the various railway lines to support the exposition by liberally subscriptions had failed to bear fruit. Grateful appreciation of the action of the Burlington system was expressed, and a resolution of thanks was ordered forwarded to them, both for the subscription to the Exposition and for their further pledge to at once proceed to build a new and commodious Passenger station, thus supplying a long felt want, and forcing a general action on similar lines by the other Railways entering the city.

With the election of new Board of 50 Directors, which occurred on December 1st, , the first Board of 11 Eleven Directors with their labors, efforts, and anxieties, became of the past, a thing apart. Mention should not be omitted of the appointment of soliciting committees and of the earnest and untiring labors of the committeemen in accomplishing their tasks.

Committees were designated to be particular class of vocations and their energies were thus concentrated and directed toward the fullest canvas of their particular allotment. These committees were appointed on July 11th, and were as follows: Insert "A". Those named in above committees were assisted by others and the roll of honor would be considerable increased if if were possible to now learn the names of all the "Willing Workers.

On December 1st, , the results of the labors of these committees, by classes, was practically as given in the following list:. Capitalists, Real Est. Transportation Co. On December 1st, , the Stockholders meeting for the election of Directors was held, according to the call therefor.

President Wattles was chosen as Chairman of the meeting. Montgomery, R. Richardson and Edward J. Cornish were designated as Judges of Election. Anton Hospe, Jr. Patterson were appointed as Clerks of Election. Messrs W. Wakefield, in proving and certifying the ballots and proxies offered. John Daugherty, Chas. Ford and W.

Farnam Smith were selected as Tellers of Election. The balloting began promptly and was concluded shortly prior to 12 o'clock p. The result of the count was as follows:. We, the undersigned Judges and Clerks of the Election for members of the Board of Directors of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, held at this meeting, beginning December 1st do hereby certify that we have carefully and correctly canvassed the votes cast at said election and that the correct result is shown upon this and the six 6 other sheets hereto attached, giving the names of all persons voted for and opposite each name the number of shares of capital stock voted for each person, including shares voted upon the accumulation plan, the addition of votes upon the accumulative plan does not change the result.

Necessary to elect, votes. Scattering votes were also cast for other persons, the highest having votes, the lowest 1 vote. On motion the forty-nine persons having received a majority of all votescast were declared elected, and the stockholders' meeting adjourned sine die. On December 5th, , Thefirst meeting of the newly elected Board of Directors was held. Alvin Saunders, Chairman, John A. Wakefield, Secretary. The matter of the fiftieth Director for the full Board, 49 only having received a majority of votes cast at the election was first considered and was laid over until the next meeting.

A committee of five was appointed to consider and draft a plan of organization and report at the next meeting. Then adjourned to December 8th, , 2 o'clock P. Ex-Senator Alvin Saunders in the Chair. Youngs, representative of organized labor, was unanimously elected to fill the vacant membership. The committee to consider, draft andreport a Plan of Organization, reported as follows:.

Chairman: Your Committee, appointed to formulate a plan of Organization beg leave to report as follows:. We would respectfully recommend that the Executive Committee shall consist of seven 7 members, each of whom shall be the head of a Department, viz:. Each of these Departments to embrace as many Bureaus as may be found necessary for carrying on its objects and purposes.

On motion, a Committee of seven 7 was appointed, composed of Directors Rosewater, Murphy, Holdrege, Montgomery, Farrell, Lindsey and Wharton, whose duty was to report the names of available persons, consenting to serve, for the positions of Officers and members of the Executive Committee to present in its report the name of any candidate for any office, recommended by two or more Directors, and that no recommendations shall be made as to selection, by the Committee. The following Resolution offered and adopted.

Resolved,That no Director of this corporation shall receive any compensation for services performed in any capacity, for the corporation. Chairman: Your Committee appointed to submit for the consideration of this board, a list of names of persons qualified to serve as officers of the Exposition Association and members of the Executive Committee, has endeavored to perform its duties to the best of its ability:the list herewith submitted contains the names of all persons recommended or endorsed by two 2 or more Directors, and whom we found willing to accept.

It is to be regretted that a number of the gentlemen whose names had been endorsed, positively declined to serve by reason of their inability to devote the requisite time to the discharge of the duties that would devolve upon them, or through disinclination to assume the responsibility. In submitting their names, your committee would recommend that each of the Department heads of the Executive Committee be elected separately.

Director John A. Wakefield presented his resignation as a Director, as being required as secretary to devote his entire time and service to the Corporation, it was not possible to do so under the resolution concerning services of Directors. On motion, the resignation was accepted and an election ordered to fill the vacancy, resulting in the election of Mr. Allan T. By-Laws for the government of the affairs of the Exposition, as prepared by the Executive Committee, were then read and, on motion, unanimously adopted.

Meeting July 9th, Hitchcock presented his resignation as member of the Executive Committee and Manager of the Department of Promotion, as follows:. I herewith resign my position as Manager of the Department of Promotion and member of the Executive Committee.

I also take the liberty of recommending that President Wattles be elected to succeed me for the reason that he is familiar with the work of the department and in constant attendance at the Executive Committee meetings. In resigning at this time I carry out my intention expressed at the time I unwillingly accepted the position. It seemed to be desirable that I should take the position, at least during the first few, troublous months, and I did so.

The Departmentis now well organized and the work well in hand. Legislative work is over and what remains to be done will be to build upon foundations already laid. Were it notforthe pressure of private business I should be glad to continue my agreeable relations as a member of the Executive Committee and I regret the necessity which compels me to retire from the management.

On motion and after much discussion, it was ordered that the Promotion Department be consolidated with the Publicity Department. Section IV. Directors Meeting, August 20th, President called attention to the death of Director Dan Farrell, Jr. Farrell was one of the men earliest interested in the Exposition project. Was a member of the first Board of Directors.

Was always earnest and prompt in his support of the work, and his genial good nature and happy disposition always brought the glad sunshine into the deliverations of the Directors, and of committees, of which he was a member. On motion, Directors Rector, Wharton and Saunders were appointed to prepare suitable resolutions relative to the decease of this valued member. The next business was the election of a Director to fill the existing vacancy, and nomination and ballot resulted in election of Mrs.

In the summer of much difficulty was experienced in holding meetings of the directors on account of lack of a quorum, a majority of the Board, and much feeling and discussion was indulged in over the seeming lack of interest on the part of the Directors. This culminated August 28th, in the adoption of the following:. Sickness only shall be deemed sufficient excuse for such non-attendance. The location of a public enterprise deemed to be of general benefit to a whole community, but of special and increased advantage to the locality immediately surrounding the institution itself, isgenerally attended with special effort on the part of those having opportunity for benefits, real or imaginary, toward the selection of the location which seems calculated to best advance their interests.

This is an altogether human feeling, in consonance with the commercialism of thisAge and, as all cannot be benefited in the same degree by the same cause, it follows naturally that a rivalry should spring up over the location of such a project as an Exposition of magnitude.

At all events, such was true in this case. Immediately upon organization of the exposition Corporation the site question came to the front. Council Bluffs was first in the field, advocating the choice of a site in East Omaha, east of Cut-Off Lake, on land which, while on the west side of the Missouri River, was really in the state of Iowa.

The Council Bluffs Exposition Committee, appointed by the Manufacturers and Merchants Association of that city, presented resolutions to the Board of Directors on February 10th , stating that all support and aid from Council Bluffs should be conditioned upon the choosing of the location urged by them, otherwise they would withdraw their support. They promptly passed resolutions as follows:.

And be it further resolved that we request our representatives at Washington and Des Moines to use their efforts to secure liberal appropriations for this project, Provided:that such appropriations are made subject to the foregoing condition, and to otherwise oppose any appropriations sought.

These resolutions with a large map of the proposed location, were printed in the Daily Nonpareil of that city and copies were mailed to all the members of Congress, the Iowa Legislature, state officers and to each of the Directors and Officers of the Exposition. In Omaha the advocates made haste to present arguments and petitions in favor of various sites, viz:Elmwood Park, Southwest part of the city, Riverview Park, in Southeast part of city, Miller Park, north of the city, Hanscom Park location, in Southwest part of city but closer in than Elmwood Park, was later put forward as a most advantageous location.

The Board of Directors, while admiring the zeal and enthusiasm of the various advocates, yet deplored the seeming anxiety to locate something that was not yet secured, being proposed and planned only. On February 28th, , the Board of Directors deemed it wise to define their position on the subject, and the following was prepared and adopted by them.

First, That an Act of Congress be passed, recognizing and endorsing the Exposition and providing an adequate appropriation for National Buildings and Exhibits. Second, The securing of subscriptions to the capital stock of this corporation to an amount sufficient to guarantee the successful promotion and conducting of the enterprise to a complete and honorable conclusion.

Resolved, That until the foregoing pre-requisite aids are secured, we deem it impolitic, inopportune, and unwise to discuss or seriously consider the matter of the location. For, until said necessary aids are secured we cannot assume that there is any Exposition to locate. And Be it Further Resolved, That at the proper time a fair and impartial hearing will be given to all parties interested in the various sites proposed, and that a location will be selected with due and fair consideration to the interests of all concerned.

This action calmed the sea that was becoming troubled, and all interests united to aid in securing pre-requisite aids. In October, , the aids referred to having been secured, the site boomers were to the fore again, and each location had its special representatives. The greatest verbal argument and epistolatory efforts were devoted to the Miller Park and Riverview Park sites; though, as time passed the Hanscom Park site's advantages seemed to become more and more prominent.

The meeting of stockholders had been called to meet December 1st, and great were the efforts to secure proxies of stockholders, that Directors favorable to this or to that site might be aided to an election. The new Board of Directors having been duly elected, were at once in the midst of a contention over the matter of location and proceeded to consider and determine the subject without delay. The responses to the request for propositions for location for the Exposition were then opened and read by the secretary.

Propositions were received covering the following locations. Yost, J. Millard and R. Wilcox, to whom shall be referred all the propositions pertaining to the selection of the site for the location of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition; and that said committee be authorized and empowered to employ a good non-resident engineer and a good non-resident Landscape Architect to carefully go over and examine all of the proposed sites and make out a report in writing of their findings and conclusions pertaining to the sites which have been proposed.

Said report, when so prepared to be delivered to said committee and by them referred to the full Board of Directors at a special meeting to be called January 23rd, at 2 o'clock p. Owing to the disposition to defer the opening and reading of the Report of Committee on Sites, until after the Nebraska Legislature had taken action on the bill in aid of the Exposition, and now pending, it was ordered that the committee shall have two weeks from this date, in which to hand in its report.

The Chairman of the Committee on Site submitted the report of the Committee, bearing the date of January 18th, , to which was attached the report of the experts employed,- Messrs. Shrader and H. Alexander, both of Chicago, Ill. The Committee stated that their recommendations or the selection of the grounds for the Exposition was based upon the following points:. On motion, it was ordered that report be received, filed and published in the paper.

The following was then presented and adopted. Second,-Proof and specification of the sufficiency of approaches, including both public highways and trackage, and maps of the ground offered. Fourth,-That the promoters of each site shall be given ten minutes at the meeting on Tuesday in which to present the merits of their proposed site. It was a decided that the proposed sites be called in alphabetical order. This was done and their merits were set forth by their representatives, as follows:.

Moved to adjourn until to-morrow evening, February 10th at 8 o'clock P. Agreed to. February 10th, After some preliminary skirmishing, a ballot was proceeded with, resulting as follows:. Smith Dudley Thompson, Total, Manderson moved that Miller Park be the unanimous choice of the Directors for the location of the Exposition. Carried unanimously by a standing vote. And thus did the location seem to be finally chosen,- but such was not the fact.

Kirkendall, as Manager of Department of Buildings and Grounds, had visited the Miller Park site frequently, and was much impressed with the feeling that the location was too far from the city, something more than four miles and feared the distance would tend to minimize the city attendance, an important factor in Exposition attendance. He quietly sought to ascertain if a nearer site could not be so arranged for, as to be available, and being successful in this, he advised with the Executive Committee concerning it, resulting, at Director's meeting of March 13th, in appointment of a committee under the following:.

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Board that, if proper arrangements can be made, the old Fair Grounds site should be selected as the location of the Exposition. For action upon this matter the President is hereby authorized to appoint a special committee of three, consisting of the President, Mr. Kirkendall and Mr. Wharton, to consider the details of a proposition to locate at the old Fair Grounds site. This Committee shall report in full at an adjourned session of this meeting of the Board of Directors, to be held at 4 o'clock P.

At said meeting the Committee reported at length and in detail, in effect,that sufficient ground could be secured for the purposes of the Exposition, lying between 24th Street east to the river bluff east of Sherman Avenue, and from Pinckney Street, north to Ames Avenue, and at an expense, practically, of the taxes for the years and The said tract to be deeded to the city of Omaha and to be forever kept maintained by the city as a Park, and to be known and called Kountz Park.

The opportunity being so favorable it was,-. The vote on the proposition was then taken, resulting in 37 votes in favor of the resolution and no votes against. The details in connection with the leasing and purchase of the required properties, was by vote, referred to the Executive Committee, who completed alldetails, secured all needed lands, executed the leases and arranged with Mr. Herman Kountz for lease of what was termed the "Kountz Tract": and arranged with him also for purchase of 11 acres to comprise what should be called KountzPark.

Which agreement was prepared and presented to the Board of Directors at meeting July 9th, Resolutions approving the agreement and authorizing its execution, were adopted as follows:. The site as secured and used, and the properties comprising same are specifically designated on the following plat of grounds. Thus was the location finally determined upon, secured and used, and great credit must be given to Manager Kirkendall for discovering and his discretion in practically securing this location.

For without this change of location, it is certain that the financial success which came to the Exposition, would not have been realized, for nothing seems to be more certainly proven that, an Exposition to be successful, must be located as near the center of population as is possible, that easy, quick and comfortable access thereto may be had.

On motion, a committee of five 5 consisting of Messrs. Robertson of Dunn's Mercantile Agency, were appointed to investigate the list of subscribers in aid of the Exposition and report as to the solvency of said subscribers and also as to whether such subscriptions were made in good faith. The report was adopted and ordered filed and used as a basis for certificate to the treasury of the United States that the requirements of the Act of Congress in aid of the Exposition had been fully complied with.

Proposals for officers for the corporation, which had hitherto been at Bee Building, were ordered advertised for, were received, considered, resulting in selection of rooms on sixth floor of the Paxton Building, at 16th and Farnam Streets, where they remained until removed to the Exposition grounds just before the opening of the Exposition period. The Executive Committee to whom had been referred the matter of preparation of By-Laws for the Corporation, here presented their report, which was read and on motion, adopted.

The committee appointed at the meeting on December 26th, , on request of the secretary, for an auditing of his accounts, etc. Your Committee appointed to check up and audit the accounts of Secretary Wakefield, from the organization of the Exposition Association, toand including December 2nd , the date of re-organization, beg leave to report as follows:. Third:We find that the total amount paid out for all purposes up to and including December 2nd, to be as follows:.

At the request of organized labor the matter of wages to unskilled workman was considered, and resulted in the adoption of the following:. Speaking to the subject under consideration, viz:the making of further assessments upon stock subscriptions, Mr.

Manderson referred to the expressed doubts of our citizens as to whether it was wise to go on with the Exposition in view, particularly of the fact that the adjoining states had not made the Legislative provisions for participation which it was expected and hoped they would do. Hitchcock spoke feelingly on the subject, and said that everything pointed to success; that this Exposition was greatly advanced over other previous Expositions at a like period in their history and offered the following resolutions which was promptly adopted.

On motion, the Secretary was instructed to make an engrossed copy of the resolution, and under direction of the Executive Committee, a copy of same be sent to each Director, not present at this meeting, for his sanction or disapproval.

And that the Secretary be authorized to accept payments on this basis. On motion, a further assessment of twenty 20 per cent was made in subscriptions to the Exposition, due and payable on or prior to August 1st, prox. The executive Committee presented the report of the special committee previously appointed by it to examine into and report upon various charges preferred against Mr. Dion Geraldine, Superintendent Building and Grounds Department, charging that in his conduct of affairs he usurped the powers and prerogatives of the Executive Committee, was guilty of willful deception, indefensible partiality to contractors, flagrant disregard of the interests of the Exposition, and expensive incompetency.

The report of the committee was very full and lengthy, and was read to the meeting. The pith of it was contained in its concluding paragraphs, which read as follows:. If Superintendent Geraldine remains in the employ of the Exposition he should in all cases adhere strictly to the rules of the Department and instructions of the manager. The subordinate employee should and ought to be willing to keep in close touch and report fully to and act under clearly stated instructions of the Department manager.

We are unable to discoverany indications of dishonesty on the part of the Superintendent or any employee connected with the Exposition, and believe the controversy tobe one of misunderstanding of the motives and positive acts which can readily be adjusted in future transactions by a union of heart and sentiment in the great work by all under the guiding wisdom of the Executive Committee as a whole.

Your Committee would extend its influence in its present relations as a special committee and recommends that such a result be arrived at. After a very full, free and spirited discussion of the situation, on motion, a note by ballot was taken on the resolution of Mr. Rosewater, resulting 12 votes for, 22 votes against.

Chair declaredthe resolution lost. Rosewater thereupon tendered his resignation as a member of the Executive Committee, effective October 15 inst. Without action thereon the meeting, on motion adjourned. In the matter of the charges preferred before the Executive Committee against an employee of the Exposition, charged with the superintendence of the Grounds and the erection of buildings, the Board endorses the action of the Executive Committee in the appointment of Directors Kountz, Bidwell and Wells as a Committee of Investigation andexpresses its conviction that the findings of this committee, made after full, careful disinterested and impartial investigation, were just and true, and that the conclusions of fact reached by them are worthy of credit and belief.

So believing the Board of Directors approve the same by the adoption of the following resolution:. Amid adverse and untoward circumstances, under undeserved criticism, without reward or the expectation thereof and at an immense personal sacrifice of time and expenditure of labor they have pursued their course.

If mistakes have been made they have been minor and unimportant and only those usually incident to enterprises of great moment. With this expression of confidence we declare our unswerving purpose to hold up their hands and aid them with all our force and power to carry on this greatwork to the full success that means so much for the Trans-Mississippi Country, and particularly for this state and community.

On vote, Roll-call, the resolution was adopted. Yeas 37, Nays 1. Youngs offered the following:. Rosewater then stated that in view of this resolution, referred to the executive Committee, he withdrew his resignation as a member of the Executive Committee and would await its action on the resolution. Kirkendall presented the resignation of Superintendent Geraldine and advised that it had been accepted by himself and the Executive Committee, effective at once, with full pay for the month of October.

Letter of resignation was as follows:. While I feel keenly the utter injustice of such a a claim, I cannot consent to be in any sense, nor in any degree an obstacle to the success of the Exposition. I therefore tender my resignation to take effect at your option.

I shall always be deeply grateful to you for the manly unwavering support and confidence you have steadily given me. I am thankful to your Executive Committee for its kind indulgence and endorsement: and to your Special Committee of the Directory for its fearless vindication of my character and ability.

The following communication advising of recommendations of Executive Committee was then read, as follows:. For the purpose of presenting to you the object of this meeting, the following extract from the record of proceedings of Executive Committee at meeting held Oct. Hitchcock of the Committee appointed by the Board of Directors, at meeting held Oct.

The various points of the agreement were discussed, and it was thought advisable to have legal counsel on some of the points, and Messrs. John L. Webster and W. Connell were sent for, and consulted with on the subject. RESOLVED, That from and after this date, all contracts for construction which shall be awarded by the Exposition, shall provide that the Union scale of wages, as appended, in force on October 1st, , shall govern in the payment of skilled labor, and that eight hours shall constitute one days work, providing that extra shifts of eight hours may be used without overtime charge.

Resolved, that for all skilled labor employed directly by the Exposition, the union scale of wages and eight hour day, as provided above shall prevail. Rosewater moved, Mr. Reed seconded, that this Committee recommended to the Board of Directors their approval of the foregoing resolution, a meeting of the Directors for this purpose be called to meet to-morrow, October 28th, at Four o'clock P.

Motion carried, six votes "Aye". President stated that he understood that some of the Directors thought it wise to have a Director General to the Exposition, and perhaps some other changes in the Organization. If there was such feeling, opportunity was now offered for its expression. The subject was discussed by Directors Kilpatrick, Wharton, Rosewater, Kountz, Kirkendall, Lee, Lindsay and Youngs, resulting in appointment of a committee consisting of Directors Kountz, Bidwell, Carpenter, Manderson and Webster, to consider the subject and report to a special meeting.

Your special committee, appointed at the meeting of the Board held on November 12th, to investigate and report upon the question of the appointment of a Director General or some other supervising officer, to promote the energetic completion of the arrangements for the Exposition, beg leave to report as follows:.

Your committee have had under consideration certain amendments to the By-Laws, touching the powers and duties of the President, but have not sufficient time to conclude its deliberations on this subject and would ask that it have further time to consider and report on the same. At Meeting January 19th, Secretary presented an accumulation of protests received, protesting against the sale of liquors on the Exposition grounds during the period of the Exposition.

After consideration the following, prepared by Mr. Manderson was adopted. The subject was still further considered but no further action was taken. For a considerable period past, there had been arguments advanced by a few of the Directors that a Director General should be appointed or elected and that the best interests of the Exposition would be advanced by such action. On May 6th, on the call of 17 Directors for a special meeting to consider this subject, a meeting was convened, but after some discussion adjourned until May 9th without action.

On May 9th the subject was again discussed, and the Chairman of the Executive Committee presented the following as representing the views of all, excepting one of the Committee. Resolved, 1st. That it is unwise at this late date, to change the general plan of organization, and the present method of conducting the business of the Exposition. That we recommend that the title of General Superintendent be abolished, and that said title be changed to that of Superintendent of Dept. Rosewater stated that he regretted his inability to concur in the conclusions of his colleagues of the Executive Committee, and that when all was said and done, he still deemed it his duty to recommend the enlargement of the powers of the General Superintendent, subject only to such legislative restriction by the executive committee as shall keep the supervisory executive power in his hands.

After submissions of various resolutions and the offering of various motions, a motion was offered that the whole subject be laid on the table, which motion prevailed, not however, until roll-call was demanded Ayes Nays The request for Director General, General Manager, General Superintendent, or some or any such officer, was again placed before the Directors, and after much more discussion of the matter, the following was prepared by Mr.

Manderson and offered for action thereon. Such suggestions of Rules and Regulations shall be acted upon and be subject to the approval of the Executive Committee. Such General Manager shall have the power, for cause, to summarily remove and discharge any employee of the Exposition employed in the buildings or on the grounds of the Exposition, except the Superintendents of Departments, and shall immediately report his actin in that behalf and give the cause for such discharge to the manager of the Department in which such person is employed.

The executive Committee subsequently, on May 23rd, , elected Mr. Thaddeus S. Clarkson as such General Manager. Clarkson had been previously engaged in assisting the President in his duties, and his services continued, under the title of General Manager, to the close of the Exposition. The subject of finance was then again taken up for consideration. The usefulness of a loan of funds was very apparent therefore, and the Executive Committee had been unable to borrow any funds on the notes of the corporation.

A committee, to whom the situation had been referred after consideration of the subject, reported the following as their recommendation, for action. Resolved, That installments of said bonds be paid on the first day of July, August, September, October and November , the amounts of such installments to be determined and directed by the trustees, and that the said bonds provide that the interest shall cease on each installment from the date the same became payable, as ordered by the trustees.

Manderson of the Committee, further reported that for the better safeguarding and protection of the bonds above provided for, he offered the following:. And, Resolved, further, That all warrants shall draw seven 7 per cent interest per annum from their date, to be registered by the secretary, and to paid by the treasurer in the order of their registration as cash funds may be in the treasury, available for such purchase.

It proved to be impossible to dispose of the bonds by subscription, the banks and other financial institutions entertaining doubts as to their authority to invest deposits in bonds of this character, and the business men of the city felt that the banks ought to arrange to take at least, one half of the issue of bonds. Else the business men should not be held to take any of them.

The bonds and the mortgage to protect them, were prepared, providing that Joseph H. Lyman, President of the Commercial National Bank, Frank Murphy President Merchants National Bank, should be the trustees required, but none of the bonds were ever issued and were eventually destroyed by a committee appointed for that purpose. On May 30th, the Executive Committee found a condition present that required action. To meet this emergency, The President, Secretary and Members of the Executive Committee, subscribed to a fund to carry the enterprise over the shoals, taking the corporation notes for the amounts; which notes were subsequently paid.

No warrants were ever offered or issued to employees. At same meeting, a number of protests against Sunday opening were presented and the Sunday opening question, which had long been held back was taken up for consideration. After considering various motions and resolutions the following was presented and adopted:. The Directors of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, in parting with the professional services of the Architects-in-Chief of the Exposition, their great work being now accomplished, desire to express their unbounded satisfaction with the result and their unqualified approval of the methods that have been pursued.

The World has not seen a more perfect aggregation of buildings than those that constitute the Exposition proper and the able Architects who designed them, are entitled to the enthusiastic praise that comes to them from all who view them. On behalf, not only of the Exposition, but of the Trans-Mississippi country, we extend to them our congratulations and hearty thanks.

We recognize also the skill and ability of Mr. Rudolph Ulrich, Landscape Artist and of Mr. Luther Steiringer, Electrician and Mr. Henry B. Rustin, his Assistant, and thank these gentlemen for the magnificent results we have found, in which they have been prime factors. Certain disquieting reports of irregularities, mismanagement and misdoings in various branches of the Exposition, and grave charges affecting the character, reputation and conduct of persons employed by the Exposition had been circulating for some time, and the need for a thorough investigation of all of the books, records and papers of the Exposition had been editorially urged in the Omaha Bee.

And the Directors considered that, in justice to all parties, and especially to those under accusation it would be wise to provide for an investigation and audit of all affairs, and therefore, the following resolution was presented and adopted:. And that said Board shall make report from time to time, of its findings and conclusions to the full Board of Directors.

Resolved, That the duties of the Board of Revision, Audit and Investigation, be and hereby are defined as follows:First,- To audit the books and accounts of the corporation to ascertain what, if any, errors exist in said books and accounts. Second,- on presentation of written charges involving the honesty or charging corruption against any officer, director, or employee of this corporation, they shall investigate such charges and report their findings in all cases to the Board of Directors for final action by the said Board.

It shall not be the duty of this Board to investigate the transactions of officers or employees of this Exposition wherein only questions of the rights of the respective parties are involved, and where no dishonesty or misappropriation is charged. See their report, end of this Chapter at Meeting of Directors June 30th, I looked at several other consulting firms, but none of the others offered consulting services, miners, and hosting all in the same place. This package helped with legal counsel, marketing, products, and more.

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The Articles of Incorporation were read as reported by the preliminary Committee, and then fully discussed, and on motion of Mr. Edward Rosewater the reading, "during the year , in the months of August, September, and October," was changed to read "beginning in the month of June and ending in the month of November, in the year ," with this change, and motion of Mr.

Holmes, the Articles as read were approved. Markel a Committee of five 5 was appointed to solicit stock subscriptions. Committee Messrs. Lindsey, W. Bennett, Charles Metz, I. Carpenter and C. Subscriptions were at once called for and in a short time the following subscriptions were secured, viz:. More than a sufficient amount having been subscribed to permit organization, it was, on motion, agreed to resolve the meeting into a stockholder's meeting. First Stockholders meeting:Mr.

Lindsey was chosen chairman and Mr. Utt Secretary. The Articles of Incorporation as prepared and finally amended in Citizens meeting were again read at length and on motion approved. The chair stated that the election of a Board of Directors, eleven in number, would be the next business in order. Nominations were then made. The chair appointed John A. Wakefield and John E. Utt as tellers of election and the ballots were cast and the count of votes made resulting as follows:. The following named persons having received the highest number of votes cast, and a majority of the votes cast, were declared elected.

Jacob E. Markel, Henry A. Thompson, Daniel Farrell, Jr. Bennett, John H. Evans, Isaac W. Carpenter, Gurdon W. Montgomery, George H. The meeting then adjourned. Markel was chosen temporary chairman and Mr. Payne temporary secretary. The meeting proceeded to nomination and election of officers. An informal ballot was taken for office of President, resulting for Mr. Zachary T. Lindsey, 10 votes, for Mr. Dudley Smith 1 vote. Lindsey was sent for and later appeared before the board and positively declined to accept for valid and sufficient reasons.

A second ballot was then taken, resulting for Mr. Dudley Smith 7 votes, scattering 4 votes. Smith positively declined to accept and nominated Mr. Wattles, who stated that he did not at all wish the position, but on motion the secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the Board for Mr. Wattles for President, which was done and he was declared elected.

President Wattles took the chair. On motion the secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the Board for Mr. Markel for the office of Vice-President, and for Mr. John Wakefield for the office of Secretary. At the next meeting of the Directors, on January 24th, on motion, the Secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the Directory for Mr. Herman Kountz for the office of treasurer and he was elected as Treasurer. On motion, Mr. Carroll S? Montgomery was elected as General Counsel for the Corporation, and also Mr.

Utt was elected as Railway Commissioner for the Company. A set of By-laws for the government of the business of the company were prepared considered and adopted. They were afterward changed in part after the reorganization, by the Board of Directors. The holding of an Exposition having been favored by many citizens of Omaha, officially sanctioned by the Trans-Mississippi Congress, and having been duly organized as a Corporation under the laws of Nebraska, it now became important to proceed in all earnestness and steadfastness to promote the purposes of the organization to the end that the object sought should be fulfilled to a most thorough and satisfactory conclusion.

The Board of Directors addressed their best thought and effort to this end. At the first meeting of the Board of Directors Mr. Odell representing the manufacturers and merchants club of Council Bluffs, Ia. He presented an invitation to the Directors to attend a Banquet, in honor of the project, to be given by the Manufacturers and Merchants Club, at the Grand Hotel, Council Bluffs, Wednesday, January 22nd, at 8 o'clock P. The invitation was accepted, and at this dinner, the object, aims and purposes of the Corporation were discussed fully.

Very neighborly feelings and sentiments were expressed and by a resolution passed unanimously, the following named gentlemen were appointed a Committee, representing Council Bluffs, to act in conjunction with the Board of Directors, and aidthe enterprise in all ways possible. Hazleton, chairman, and Messrs. Thomas Bowman, Geo. Wright, J. Steadman, W. Pusey, M. Rohrer, W. Loomis, Thomas C. Dawson, William Moore, E. Hart, and Victor E. The Iowa Legislature being then in session and being one of the few western states whose Legislature would hold sessions that year, it was particularly desired that Iowa should early recognize the Exposition and provide for a state representation.

The Secretary,byinvitation, met with the Council Bluffs Committee, including state senator Pusey of Iowa, in Council Bluffs on the evening of January 25th and went over with them the aims and purposes of the Exposition and best manner of presenting the subject to the Iowa Legislature to secure their commendation and early action. This Committee consisting of President G.

Wattles, Secretary John A. Wakefield, Ex-Gov. Alvin Saunders, Judge W. Strawn, Mr. Lindsey of Omaha, and Messrs. Odell, Chas. Hannan, I. Treynor, W. Moore and Thos. Dawson of Council Bluffs, went to Des Moines on February 10th and spent two days in Iowa's capitol City, meeting Committees of both houses of the Legislature, who treated the subject and the delegation kindly and both branches of the Legislature passed unanimously.

The following resolutions:. WHEREAS:Delegates representing the twenty-four states and territories lying west of the Mississippi River, at the Trans-Mississippi Congress of , adopted a Resolution providing for the holding of an Exposition for the purpose of exhibiting the products, manufactures, arts and industries of these states and territories; and. WHEREAS, The Common interest of the states and territories constituting this greatregion as well as the country at large, will be greatly prompted thereby, and the interest of the state of Iowa, lying at its gateway, will be especially benefited by such an exposition on her borders; therefore, be it.

RESOLVED, By the General Assembly of the State of Iowa, That the holding of said Trans-Mississippi Exposition is hereby heartily approved, and that the Senators and Representatives from our sister state, Nebraska, and the other Trans-Mississippi states in procuring the passage at this session of congress, of a bill giving national recognition top said exposition, and providing for an appropriation for a National Exhibit and the necessary and proper buildings to contain the same; and be it further.

This was the initial state Legislation in aid of the Exposition. Thurston of Nebraska was Chairman. David H. Mercer representative in Congress for the second district of Nebraska including Omaha, had introduced in Congress a bill in aid of the Exposition H. The bill had been favorably received and Mr. Mercer was confident that its passage in the House of Congress could be executed, but a controversy as to amount could only result in lessening the appropriationto the smaller stated sum.

A meeting of the Directors and others with Senator John M. Allan's bill and its probabilities for passage was considered, and the Senator expressed his belief that passage of the bill could be secured of actions as he advised be taken. It was agreed that an appropriation of funds and the sum thereof be subject of later efforts, was left to the judgment and action of the Congressional delegation of this district. The Board of Directors on January 31st declared its present object was to secure, First:formal resolutions of approval and endorsement from Congress, states, cities, organizations and individuals.

Second:, and later; Appropriations of adequate amounts to properly and fittingly represent the resources, products and capabilities of each of the Trans-Mississippi States, the National Government and such other states as could be sufficiently interested.

A Press Bureau was created and Messrs. Isaac W. Carpenter, C. Montgomery and John A. Circular letters were prepared and sent to Boards of Trade,Commercial organizations, Governors and Mayors of Cities, etc. Such postals were sent to each of the U.

Senators, Representatives, the President and the Cabinet officers. Efforts of this and kindred kind were put forth with indefatigable energy and in almost unlimited quantity, and the success which finally came to the enterprise in such large degree, is attributable in large part to the interest aroused and results secured from these early and well directed efforts to secure approval of and participation in the project. The Legislature of Utah held a session in winter of and it was early decided that good results would follow the sending of a delegation of Omahans to visit them and more fully present the Exposition aims to their notice.

Accordingly on Friday, March 20th, , a delegation consisting of President, G. Wakefield, Hon. Gilbert M. Hitchcock, Capt. Palmer, Z. Lindsey, A. Hazleton of Council Bluffs, and Directors W. Bennett, Charles Metz, J. Evans, H. Thompson, left Omaha in the Pullman Car, Montana, kindly donated for the trip by the Pullman Company, the transportation being generously donated by the Union Pacific Company; the delegation providing personally for all the other expenses of the trip.

Saturday was spent in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Meetings were held with Governor W. Richards, the state officials, and prominent citizens, and newspaper men, and were cordially received and much enthusiasm in the project was aroused. On Monday following the delegation met Governor H. Wells and Joint Committee of the Utah Legislature then in session were most kindly received, and Utah's participation was pledged, both branches of the Legislature unanimously passing Resolutions as follows:.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the senators and representatives from Utah in the national congress by the secretary of state, with the request that they promote as far as possible the said exposition. On Tuesday the delegation dined with the mayor and city officials of the city of Ogden, Utah, and Ogden's best efforts and aids were promised.

Wednesday and Thursday found the delegation in Denver, Colo. Steele and members of the chamber of Commerce, the Denver Mining Exchange, etc. The delegation reached Omaha Saturday eve, March 28th, feeling that they had done good work for the Exposition and that good results would follow. At each place visited the Newspapers treated the delegation most kindly and published elaborate and full information of the object in view, and to them much of the success resulting from this Exposition trip was due.

On return of the delegation the Directors ordered that a telegram be sent to Hon. Mercer, our member of Congress embodying a succint statement of situation and results accomplished to date. Telegram was as follows:. Legislatures do not meet until next Winter except Iowa and Utah. They had passed Joint Resolutions and formally promised appropriations as soon as Government recognition and appropriation passes. Regarding further subscriptions to the capital stock.

The reason for above action was the belief that unless the National Government recognized, approved and arranged for its participation in the Exposition, it would be inadvisable to further proceed in the matter. If Government passed the bill now before it, then a justifiable basis would exist for further work and efforts. Otherwise, the project would be abandoned. The effects of the financial panic of , followed throughout the west by successive crop failures in and resulting from drought, had made business conditions the worst possible and it required strong resolution and supreme faith to anticipate best financial results for the Exposition, under the then present circumstances and conditions, even with the aid and support of the Government.

Every effort was henceforth directed toward forwarding the passage of the Exposition bill by Congress. Reports from Washington were conflicting; it seemed to be a comparatively easy matter to get a bill through the Senate but opposition sprung up in the House and our reports were sometimes sanguine, then disheartening, sometimes encouraging, causing belief in final success to obtain, then doleful causing hopes to fall to low ebb.

Mercer never seemed to lose confidence in being able to finally secure the passage of the bill - and the hopes of the Directors were largely dependent upon the sanguine confidence of our Congressman, and faith in the belief that "If any one kin, He kin. April 10th, , the following telegram was received from Hon. Both houses Iowa Legislature passed unanimously. Allan and representative D.

Mercer at Washington. Speaker of the House of Representatives, Hon. Reed was opposed to the bill arguing economy, that Government was even then borrowing money to conduct its affairs. The Directors considered this proposal and decided that this was, perhaps, a good proviso, for if Government passed the bill, it would certainly be necessary to raise such an amount to permit a successful exposition and the fact that the Government act required it, might help in the securing of it.

As a result the Directors ordered that Senators Allan Thurston and Representative Mercer be advised that they favored the idea, but that the amount should not properly be for a sum, much, if any, greater than the Government's appropriation. April 10th, Mercer's bill , could not be depended upon, as being obtained early enough to secure passage at that session of Congress, which was most important. Allison stated that the appropriation for Atlanta, Ga. The bill now went to the House, and Mr.

Mercer discovered that he had the fight of his life on hand to secure passage. On the request of the Directors, Mr. President Wattles went to Washington to endeavor to assist as he might in passage of the bill. President Wattles having returned from Washington and the Directors feeling again the need of a special representative there, that Mr.

Mercer could be aided in any additional way possible, the Directors requested Ex-Senator Chas. Manderson and Hon. Edward Rosewater to go to Washington. Rosewater started at once on May 7th, ; Mr. Manderson was unable to leave the city at the time. Opportunity for passage of bill by congress was now felt to be assured, but vexations obstacles prevented and annoying delays ensued, and as the session was fast drawing toward its close, the fear of non success was strong, and great anxiety was felt over the situation.

It was expected that the bill would be called up for passage early in May, and again at several later dates in May. It was assured that recognition of Speaker Reed would be secured permitting the placing of the bill before the House for passage,but all of no avail; one obstacle after another intervened, and the anxiety grew greater, notwithstanding the able assistance of Senators Allison and Gear of Iowa, Senators Allan and Thurston of Nebraska, of practically the whole Iowa and Nebraska delegations and their friends, the situation could not be improved, nor the desired opportunity secured.

A demand upon the speaker for a set day met with no response. It was only watch and wait. On June 5th Mr. Mercer found his opportunity. The request for consent to place the bill on its passage was made, when lo! Kem, sent to the House of Congress to represent the wishes and desires of the Sixth 6th Congressional district of Nebraska.

Yet who in this case frightfully misrepresented them, as the rain of denunciatory telegrams from his district fully demonstrated to him, but stubborn to the last he kept up his opposition and aided not in passing the bill. On June 9th at p. Mercer again secured recognition by the speaker, but again he was doomed to disappointment, for Mr.

Bailey of Texas objected, as he said from conscientious motives, to unanimous consent to consider the bill. It now looked like sure defeat as Congress was scheduled to adjourn the following day. But on June 10th recognition was again secured, and Mr.

Kem having left for home, and Mr. Bailey being absent at lunch unanimous consent was secured, the bill passed, hurried over to the Senate, which body Senator Allan had held in session purposely, the amended bill was passed by the Senate, was finally engrossed, taken at once by Mr.

Mercer to the President, Hon. Grover Cleveland and at once signed, and thus became a law after one of the most memorable struggles in Congress. Speaker Thos. Reed stated that no bill that he knew of had been so well exploited as was this one; that the bombardment of Congress was not only courteous and of good and convincing argument but that it had been continuous, never letting up from the early beginning to the final passage of the bill and signing it by the President.

Be it also, yet without the untiring, indefatigable, indomitable, yet urbane and polite efforts of Hon. Mercer, aided and assisted though he was by many others, the Congressional bill would not have passed and there would not have been an Exposition to need and deserve a history.

The news of the passage of Congressional bill released the tension of anxiety, and cheerfulness and confidence in ultimate success prevailed generally. On June 13th, , Council Bluffs had a great celebration parade with music, fireworks and speeches and good cheer was on every hand. The Commercial Club of Omaha took up and arranged for a grand civic demonstration in honor of the passage of the bill and in honor of the men who secured its passage, this was planned to and did take place on the evening of Friday, June 26th, A procession several miles long and composed of many military and civic organizations added to the splendor of the demonstration, and the booming of cannon, setting off of fireworks, and the music of many bands, supplied the embellishments of a great occasion.

It seemed indeed that everybody was there, and the route of the procession and Jefferson Square, where the speaking occurred were packed with those who came to see and cheer. The parade was under the direction of Grand Marshal Robt. Wilcox, and starting at p. On request of Chas.

Wattles of the Exposition presided. With a few complimentary words he introduced Nebraska's Governor, Hon. Silas A. Holcomb, who was greeted with applause and spoke briefly in congratulation. He was followed by Hon. Mercer, who was greeted by loud and long applause, really an ovation.

He complimented the management of the Board of Directors and those who so ably assisted them and in conclusion presented President Wattles with the pen with which President Cleveland signed the Exposition bill. Senator W. Allan was cheered vigorously and continuously for some minutes when next introduced. His speech was felicitous and complimentary to Omaha and its enterprise. Letters and telegrams of regret were read from Gov.

Richards of Wyoming, Gov. McIntyre of Colorado, Gov. Sheldon of South Dakota, U. Senators W. Allison and John H. Gear of Iowa, John M. Thurston of Nebraska, Congressman W. Andrews, E. Hainer and O. Kem of Nebraska, D. Henderson, Thos. Updegraff, Geo.

Perkins, Robt. Cousins, S. Clark, John C. Lacey, J. Dollivar, Geo, M. Curtis of Iowa, Ex-Congressman W. Bryan of Nebraska, Hon. Joy of Mo. Furnas of Brownville, Nebraska was introduced as a man who had been working on Exposition in Nebraska for a half century past. He responded in his usual happy manner, and was followed by Hon. John N. Baldwin of Council Bluffs, Iowa, who delivered the oration of the evening, an eloquent address, thoroughly western in spirit and it was received with great enthusiasm.

Ex-Senator Chas. Manderson spoke next; he grew reminiscent and compared the parade of a mere handful of people in celebrating the completion of the Union Pacific Railway with the parade of the present occasion. He addressed complimentary remarks to those who had been instrumental in passing the bill. He was especially complimentary to President Wattles whom he styled the "inspiriting soul of the enterprise, a man endowed with energy, character, and all the elements of true manhood.

Van Dusen of South Omaha followed. Wattles gave assurance of South Omaha's great interest and its fullest support to the Exposition. John Doniphan, Vice President for Missouri, was the next speaker. He Spoke briefly, being reminded of the fact that ninety two years ago on the site of Council Bluffs, Ia. This being the last speech, the audience adjourned with a rousing three cheers and a tiger for the Exposition and its promoters at home and in Congress.

Now that the great object sought, national recognition, approval and participation, had been pledged and the enthusiasm following this success had settled to strong resolve to go forward to ultimate success, it was determined by the management that the scope of the work should be broadened and the business men of the city be called upon to lend their best efforts in the work and particularly toward securing the stick subscriptions required by Congress.

A meeting of merchants and citizens was called at the Commercial Club rooms on the evening of June 18th, , and the rooms were packed with representative citizens and the utmost enthusiasm prevailed, many speeches were made - all favorable. The result of the meeting was the adoption by unanimous vote, amid great cheering of the following:"Resolved, that it is the sense of this meeting that the Directors of the Exposition proceed with the work outlined, at their discretion, and that we pledge to them the hearty support of the business men and capitalists of the city.

The Board of Directors met on June 19th, , and it was decided to call a meeting on July 20th, by invitation, of citizens to serve as a Bureau of Finance for the Exposition. Such Board of Directors shall elect a President, Vice President, a Treasurer and a Secretary, the duties of which officers shall be fixed by the Board.

Such officers shall be elected from among the Directors or other stockholders. Such Board of Directors shall also elect from its number, an Executive Committee of not less than five or more than nine, which said Executive Committee shall have all the powers of the Board of Directors when said Board is not in session, and shall choose a chairman from their own number.

There shall be twenty-four additional Vice-Presidents, one for each state and Territory west of the Mississippi River, who shall be the same persons heretofore chosen by this Corporation as heretofore organized. The Board of Directors shall have authority to appoint such other officers, agents, servants, employees, committees or Boards as they may deem necessary for the conduct of the business of the Corporation, and they may from time to time prescribe the duties of all such appointees in such manner as they may deem best.

The Board of Directors shall have authority to delegate to any subordinate committee or Board, such duties as the Board itself might otherwise exercise. The Directors, when elected, shall serve during the life of this Corporation, and shall have powers to fill vacancies in their numbers caused by death, resignation or other reason, and may for cause expel any member of said Board.

We recommend that Article VIII of the Articles of Incorporation be amended by substituting for the first sentence thereof, the following words:. We recommend that Article XI of the Articles of Incorporation be amended by striking out the following words:. We report that of the two subscription papers containing the subscriptions of the stock already made to this Corporation, the paper compromising the greater number and amount of subscriptions is not in legal form and does not give the subscribers whose names are attached thereto the status of the share-holders in the Corporation, and we recommend that such subscriptions be re-taken in due form and that the form of subscription employed be uniform in all cases.

We recommend that the changes heretofore outlined in the Articles of Incorporation and in the form of subscriptions to stock, be required by this Committee of Twenty-four as a condition precedent to the acceptance by this committee of its appointment and to the work of raising further subscriptions.

We recommend that upon the completion of the reorganization of the Corporation, as herein outlined, the action of the Corporation in creating the present Bureau of Finance be rescinded to the end that the Corporation may take such action regarding the division of the work of said Corporation as may be desired. This report was submitted to the Directors and considered by them on June 27th, and it was ordered that a meeting of the stockholders be called to meet on Friday, July 10th, , to consider and vote upon amendments to the Articles of Incorporation.

At the meeting of the stockholders in July 10th, , shares of stock being present and voting, the Articles of Incorporation were changed by vote as follows:. Such Board of Directors shall elect a President, a vice-president, a treasurer and a secretary, the duties of which officers shall be fixed by the board. Such officers shall be elected from among the directors or other stockholders.

Such board of directors shall also elect from its number an executive committee of not less than five 5 nor more than nine 9 , which said executive committee shall have all the powers of the board of directors when said board is not in session, and shall choose a chairman from their own number. There shall be twenty-four additional vice-presidents one 1 for each state and territory west of the Mississippi river. The board of directors shall have authority to appoint such other officers, agents, servants, employees, committees or boards as they may deem necessary for the business of the Corporation, and they may from time to time prescribe the duties of all such appointees in such manner as they may deem best.

The board of directors shall have authority to delegate to any subordinate Committee or board, such duties as the board itself might otherwise exercise. The directors when elected shall serve during the life of this corporation, and shall have power to fill vacancies in their numbers caused by death, resignation or any other reason, and may for cause expel any member of said board by a two-thirds vote of the entire board.

Notice of said meeting shall be given to said stockholders and stock subscribers by publication in the daily papers of Omaha at least two days before the time fixed for holding said meeting," and the last sentence of the Article was amended to read as follows:.

The Committee appointed to act as a Bureau of Finance then met and considered this action, and decided to accept same, upon agreement that following form of subscription blank be adopted and used:. We, the undersigned, hereby subscribe each for himself, and not one for another, and agree to pay for capital stock in the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, a corporation organized "to provide for holding, beginning in the month of June and ending in the month of November in the year , within or near the city of Omaha, in Douglas County, Nebraska, an exposition of all the products, industries and civilization of the States and Territories of the United States of America, west of the Mississippi River, and also such exhibits as may be provided by the United States, or any State in the United States, or any foreign country, for the purpose particularly of exhibiting to the world, the products, industries and capabilities generally of the States and Territories west of the Mississippi River," equal to the amounts hereinafter written opposite our names respectively; payment to be made at such times and such installments as may be called for by the Board of Directors.

Provided, that not more than ten 10 per cent. The Legislature of the State of Louisiana being in session in June and early July, the Directors decided that an effort should be made to secure the cooperation of that state. A delegation comprising of President Wattles, Thos. Kilpatrick, Judge Macomber and Jas. Sheehan proceeded to Baton Rouge, La. July 3rd, Too late to secure direct appropriation, but concurrent resolution has just passed both houses, authorizing the Bureau of Agriculture to make an exhibit, and pledging the state to pay for same.

Louisiana was therefore the third state to officially recognize and direct that the state be represented at the Exposition. It is much regretted that Louisiana was prevented, subsequently, from making a showing of exhibits at the Exposition. Attention was now given especially to the work of securing subscriptions, the work was mapped out, Committees appointed and the campaign proceeded with vigor and success. On Sept. The Directors therefore ordered that an assessment of Five 5 per cent be made on the capital stock subscribed, payable prior to six o'clock p.

There were present in addition to the full directory, Mssrs. Manderson, Thos, Kilpatrick, C. Lyman, John S. Brady, Arthur C. Smith, A. Recotr, Wm. Redick, E. Andriesen, M. Barlow, J. Millard, C. Kountze, W. Paxton, H. Cady, C. Weller, F. Kirkendall, C. Yost, Edward Rosewater, O. Holmes, John Powers, W. Marsh, A. Reed, E. Bruce, Sam'l Katz, Louis Huggins and others. Manderson, as spokesman, stated that owing to the closeness of the times, the excitement attending the campaign relating to the coming national elections, debates on the money situation, and the fact that some individuals and corporations that should subscribe largely to the Exposition, would not do so, until after the November elections, and yet desired a voice in the election of the Board of Directors, and was therefore aid that might be altogether lost if election of Board of Directors was held, as now proposed and called, that, therefore the gentlemen present desired to request that the proposed election of Directors be deferred until some date in November , say November 10th.

The request was discussed, and a Directors' meeting was at once convened, and Mr. Montgomery offered the following which was adopted:. Resolved, That the call for the stockholders meeting to be held October 1st, , for the election of a Board of Directors, fifty 50 in number, be rescinded and withdrawn, and that the said stockholders meeting be postponed to and held on Tuesday, the First day of December, at seven o'clock p. Meanwhile, other promotive work had been pushed, and particularly the efforts to induce the holding of annual meetings of large organizations, conventions, congresses, fraternal national meetings, etc.

The Governors of States in most of the Trans-Mississippi Territory had appointed their State Vice-Presidents, and the correspondence and circular work had grown to large proportions, and the influences favoring the Exposition were ever widening and spreading. The newspapers of the country generously published information regarding the project, and a firm basis for the enterprise was being constantly strengthened.

River Railway Co. This information was greeted with cheers of acclaim, for now the ice was broken that overlapped the subscriptions of the various Railway Companies, the Burlington system being the first to uncover and send in its subscription, and it was confidently predicted that the other lines entering Omaha would soon follow the good example of the Burlington lines.

It had been a matter of grave concern to the management that all efforts to persuade the various railway lines to support the exposition by liberally subscriptions had failed to bear fruit. Grateful appreciation of the action of the Burlington system was expressed, and a resolution of thanks was ordered forwarded to them, both for the subscription to the Exposition and for their further pledge to at once proceed to build a new and commodious Passenger station, thus supplying a long felt want, and forcing a general action on similar lines by the other Railways entering the city.

With the election of new Board of 50 Directors, which occurred on December 1st, , the first Board of 11 Eleven Directors with their labors, efforts, and anxieties, became of the past, a thing apart. Mention should not be omitted of the appointment of soliciting committees and of the earnest and untiring labors of the committeemen in accomplishing their tasks.

Committees were designated to be particular class of vocations and their energies were thus concentrated and directed toward the fullest canvas of their particular allotment. These committees were appointed on July 11th, and were as follows: Insert "A". Those named in above committees were assisted by others and the roll of honor would be considerable increased if if were possible to now learn the names of all the "Willing Workers.

On December 1st, , the results of the labors of these committees, by classes, was practically as given in the following list:. Capitalists, Real Est. Transportation Co. On December 1st, , the Stockholders meeting for the election of Directors was held, according to the call therefor. President Wattles was chosen as Chairman of the meeting.

Montgomery, R. Richardson and Edward J. Cornish were designated as Judges of Election. Anton Hospe, Jr. Patterson were appointed as Clerks of Election. Messrs W. Wakefield, in proving and certifying the ballots and proxies offered. John Daugherty, Chas. Ford and W. Farnam Smith were selected as Tellers of Election. The balloting began promptly and was concluded shortly prior to 12 o'clock p. The result of the count was as follows:. We, the undersigned Judges and Clerks of the Election for members of the Board of Directors of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, held at this meeting, beginning December 1st do hereby certify that we have carefully and correctly canvassed the votes cast at said election and that the correct result is shown upon this and the six 6 other sheets hereto attached, giving the names of all persons voted for and opposite each name the number of shares of capital stock voted for each person, including shares voted upon the accumulation plan, the addition of votes upon the accumulative plan does not change the result.

Necessary to elect, votes. Scattering votes were also cast for other persons, the highest having votes, the lowest 1 vote. On motion the forty-nine persons having received a majority of all votescast were declared elected, and the stockholders' meeting adjourned sine die. On December 5th, , Thefirst meeting of the newly elected Board of Directors was held. Alvin Saunders, Chairman, John A. Wakefield, Secretary. The matter of the fiftieth Director for the full Board, 49 only having received a majority of votes cast at the election was first considered and was laid over until the next meeting.

A committee of five was appointed to consider and draft a plan of organization and report at the next meeting. Then adjourned to December 8th, , 2 o'clock P. Ex-Senator Alvin Saunders in the Chair. Youngs, representative of organized labor, was unanimously elected to fill the vacant membership. The committee to consider, draft andreport a Plan of Organization, reported as follows:.

Chairman: Your Committee, appointed to formulate a plan of Organization beg leave to report as follows:. We would respectfully recommend that the Executive Committee shall consist of seven 7 members, each of whom shall be the head of a Department, viz:. Each of these Departments to embrace as many Bureaus as may be found necessary for carrying on its objects and purposes. On motion, a Committee of seven 7 was appointed, composed of Directors Rosewater, Murphy, Holdrege, Montgomery, Farrell, Lindsey and Wharton, whose duty was to report the names of available persons, consenting to serve, for the positions of Officers and members of the Executive Committee to present in its report the name of any candidate for any office, recommended by two or more Directors, and that no recommendations shall be made as to selection, by the Committee.

The following Resolution offered and adopted. Resolved,That no Director of this corporation shall receive any compensation for services performed in any capacity, for the corporation. Chairman: Your Committee appointed to submit for the consideration of this board, a list of names of persons qualified to serve as officers of the Exposition Association and members of the Executive Committee, has endeavored to perform its duties to the best of its ability:the list herewith submitted contains the names of all persons recommended or endorsed by two 2 or more Directors, and whom we found willing to accept.

It is to be regretted that a number of the gentlemen whose names had been endorsed, positively declined to serve by reason of their inability to devote the requisite time to the discharge of the duties that would devolve upon them, or through disinclination to assume the responsibility. In submitting their names, your committee would recommend that each of the Department heads of the Executive Committee be elected separately. Director John A.

Wakefield presented his resignation as a Director, as being required as secretary to devote his entire time and service to the Corporation, it was not possible to do so under the resolution concerning services of Directors. On motion, the resignation was accepted and an election ordered to fill the vacancy, resulting in the election of Mr.

Allan T. By-Laws for the government of the affairs of the Exposition, as prepared by the Executive Committee, were then read and, on motion, unanimously adopted. Meeting July 9th, Hitchcock presented his resignation as member of the Executive Committee and Manager of the Department of Promotion, as follows:. I herewith resign my position as Manager of the Department of Promotion and member of the Executive Committee.

I also take the liberty of recommending that President Wattles be elected to succeed me for the reason that he is familiar with the work of the department and in constant attendance at the Executive Committee meetings. In resigning at this time I carry out my intention expressed at the time I unwillingly accepted the position.

It seemed to be desirable that I should take the position, at least during the first few, troublous months, and I did so. The Departmentis now well organized and the work well in hand. Legislative work is over and what remains to be done will be to build upon foundations already laid. Were it notforthe pressure of private business I should be glad to continue my agreeable relations as a member of the Executive Committee and I regret the necessity which compels me to retire from the management.

On motion and after much discussion, it was ordered that the Promotion Department be consolidated with the Publicity Department. Section IV. Directors Meeting, August 20th, President called attention to the death of Director Dan Farrell, Jr. Farrell was one of the men earliest interested in the Exposition project.

Was a member of the first Board of Directors. Was always earnest and prompt in his support of the work, and his genial good nature and happy disposition always brought the glad sunshine into the deliverations of the Directors, and of committees, of which he was a member. On motion, Directors Rector, Wharton and Saunders were appointed to prepare suitable resolutions relative to the decease of this valued member.

The next business was the election of a Director to fill the existing vacancy, and nomination and ballot resulted in election of Mrs. In the summer of much difficulty was experienced in holding meetings of the directors on account of lack of a quorum, a majority of the Board, and much feeling and discussion was indulged in over the seeming lack of interest on the part of the Directors. This culminated August 28th, in the adoption of the following:.

Sickness only shall be deemed sufficient excuse for such non-attendance. The location of a public enterprise deemed to be of general benefit to a whole community, but of special and increased advantage to the locality immediately surrounding the institution itself, isgenerally attended with special effort on the part of those having opportunity for benefits, real or imaginary, toward the selection of the location which seems calculated to best advance their interests.

This is an altogether human feeling, in consonance with the commercialism of thisAge and, as all cannot be benefited in the same degree by the same cause, it follows naturally that a rivalry should spring up over the location of such a project as an Exposition of magnitude. At all events, such was true in this case. Immediately upon organization of the exposition Corporation the site question came to the front.

Council Bluffs was first in the field, advocating the choice of a site in East Omaha, east of Cut-Off Lake, on land which, while on the west side of the Missouri River, was really in the state of Iowa. The Council Bluffs Exposition Committee, appointed by the Manufacturers and Merchants Association of that city, presented resolutions to the Board of Directors on February 10th , stating that all support and aid from Council Bluffs should be conditioned upon the choosing of the location urged by them, otherwise they would withdraw their support.

They promptly passed resolutions as follows:. And be it further resolved that we request our representatives at Washington and Des Moines to use their efforts to secure liberal appropriations for this project, Provided:that such appropriations are made subject to the foregoing condition, and to otherwise oppose any appropriations sought.

These resolutions with a large map of the proposed location, were printed in the Daily Nonpareil of that city and copies were mailed to all the members of Congress, the Iowa Legislature, state officers and to each of the Directors and Officers of the Exposition. In Omaha the advocates made haste to present arguments and petitions in favor of various sites, viz:Elmwood Park, Southwest part of the city, Riverview Park, in Southeast part of city, Miller Park, north of the city, Hanscom Park location, in Southwest part of city but closer in than Elmwood Park, was later put forward as a most advantageous location.

The Board of Directors, while admiring the zeal and enthusiasm of the various advocates, yet deplored the seeming anxiety to locate something that was not yet secured, being proposed and planned only. On February 28th, , the Board of Directors deemed it wise to define their position on the subject, and the following was prepared and adopted by them. First, That an Act of Congress be passed, recognizing and endorsing the Exposition and providing an adequate appropriation for National Buildings and Exhibits.

Second, The securing of subscriptions to the capital stock of this corporation to an amount sufficient to guarantee the successful promotion and conducting of the enterprise to a complete and honorable conclusion. Resolved, That until the foregoing pre-requisite aids are secured, we deem it impolitic, inopportune, and unwise to discuss or seriously consider the matter of the location.

For, until said necessary aids are secured we cannot assume that there is any Exposition to locate. And Be it Further Resolved, That at the proper time a fair and impartial hearing will be given to all parties interested in the various sites proposed, and that a location will be selected with due and fair consideration to the interests of all concerned.

This action calmed the sea that was becoming troubled, and all interests united to aid in securing pre-requisite aids. In October, , the aids referred to having been secured, the site boomers were to the fore again, and each location had its special representatives. The greatest verbal argument and epistolatory efforts were devoted to the Miller Park and Riverview Park sites; though, as time passed the Hanscom Park site's advantages seemed to become more and more prominent.

The meeting of stockholders had been called to meet December 1st, and great were the efforts to secure proxies of stockholders, that Directors favorable to this or to that site might be aided to an election. The new Board of Directors having been duly elected, were at once in the midst of a contention over the matter of location and proceeded to consider and determine the subject without delay.

The responses to the request for propositions for location for the Exposition were then opened and read by the secretary. Propositions were received covering the following locations. Yost, J. Management, I had no idea what type of miner I wanted or needed. I thought the process would be confusing, but they made it really simple and easy to understand. Beyond what I could have hoped for! I looked at several other consulting firms, but none of the others offered consulting services, miners, and hosting all in the same place.

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And there is no limit to how many guesses they get. Let's say I'm thinking of the number There is no "extra credit" for Friend B, even though B's answer was closer to the target answer of Now imagine that I pose the "guess what number I'm thinking of" question, but I'm not asking just three friends, and I'm not thinking of a number between 1 and Rather, I'm asking millions of would-be miners and I'm thinking of a digit hexadecimal number.

Now you see that it's going to be extremely hard to guess the right answer. In Bitcoin terms, simultaneous answers occur frequently, but at the end of the day, there can only be one winning answer. Typically, it is the miner who has done the most work or, in other words, the one that verifies the most transactions.

The losing block then becomes an " orphan block. Miners who successfully solve the hash problem but who haven't verified the most transactions are not rewarded with bitcoin. Well, here is an example of such a number:. The number above has 64 digits. Easy enough to understand so far. As you probably noticed, that number consists not just of numbers, but also letters of the alphabet.

Why is that? To understand what these letters are doing in the middle of numbers, let's unpack the word "hexadecimal. As you know, we use the "decimal" system, which means it is base This, in turn, means that every digit of a multi-digit number has 10 possibilities, zero through nine.

In a hexadecimal system, each digit has 16 possibilities. But our numeric system only offers 10 ways of representing numbers zero through nine. That's why you have to stick letters in, specifically letters a, b, c, d, e, and f. If you are mining bitcoin, you do not need to calculate the total value of that digit number the hash. I repeat: You do not need to calculate the total value of a hash. Remember that ELI5 analogy, where I wrote the number 19 on a piece of paper and put it in a sealed envelope?

In bitcoin mining terms, that metaphorical undisclosed number in the envelope is called the target hash. What miners are doing with those huge computers and dozens of cooling fans is guessing at the target hash. A nonce is short for "number only used once," and the nonce is the key to generating these bit hexadecimal numbers I keep talking about.

In Bitcoin mining, a nonce is 32 bits in size—much smaller than the hash, which is bits. In theory, you could achieve the same goal by rolling a sided die 64 times to arrive at random numbers, but why on earth would you want to do that? The screenshot below, taken from the site Blockchain. You are looking at a summary of everything that happened when block was mined. The nonce that generated the "winning" hash was The target hash is shown on top.

The term "Relayed by Antpool" refers to the fact that this particular block was completed by AntPool, one of the more successful mining pools more about mining pools below. As you see here, their contribution to the Bitcoin community is that they confirmed transactions for this block. If you really want to see all of those transactions for this block, go to this page and scroll down to the heading "Transactions. All target hashes begin with zeros—at least eight zeros and up to 63 zeros.

There is no minimum target, but there is a maximum target set by the Bitcoin Protocol. No target can be greater than this number:. Here are some examples of randomized hashes and the criteria for whether they will lead to success for the miner:. You'd have to get a fast mining rig, or, more realistically, join a mining pool—a group of coin miners who combine their computing power and split the mined bitcoin.

Mining pools are comparable to those Powerball clubs whose members buy lottery tickets en masse and agree to share any winnings. A disproportionately large number of blocks are mined by pools rather than by individual miners. In other words, it's literally just a numbers game. You cannot guess the pattern or make a prediction based on previous target hashes.

Not great odds if you're working on your own, even with a tremendously powerful mining rig. Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem.

They must also consider the significant amount of electrical power mining rigs utilize in generating vast quantities of nonces in search of the solution. All told, bitcoin mining is largely unprofitable for most individual miners as of this writing. Source: Cryptocompare. Mining rewards are paid to the miner who discovers a solution to the puzzle first, and the probability that a participant will be the one to discover the solution is equal to the portion of the total mining power on the network.

Participants with a small percentage of the mining power stand a very small chance of discovering the next block on their own. For instance, a mining card that one could purchase for a couple of thousand dollars would represent less than 0. With such a small chance at finding the next block, it could be a long time before that miner finds a block, and the difficulty going up makes things even worse.

The miner may never recoup their investment. The answer to this problem is mining pools. By working together in a pool and sharing the payouts among all participants, miners can get a steady flow of bitcoin starting the day they activate their miner. As mentioned above, the easiest way to acquire bitcoin is to simply buy it on one of the many exchanges. Alternately, you can always leverage the "pickaxe strategy.

Or, to put it in modern terms, invest in the companies that manufacture those pickaxes. In a cryptocurrency context, the pickaxe equivalent would be a company that manufactures equipment used for Bitcoin mining. The legality of Bitcoin mining depends entirely on your geographic location.

The concept of Bitcoin can threaten the dominance of fiat currencies and government control over the financial markets. For this reason, Bitcoin is completely illegal in certain places. Bitcoin ownership and mining are legal in more countries than not. The risks of mining are that of financial risk and a regulatory one.

As mentioned, Bitcoin mining, and mining in general, is a financial risk. One could go through all the effort of purchasing hundreds or thousands of dollars worth of mining equipment only to have no return on their investment. That said, this risk can be mitigated by joining mining pools. If you are considering mining and live in an area that it is prohibited you should reconsider. It may also be a good idea to research your countries regulation and overall sentiment towards cryptocurrency before investing in mining equipment.

Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Bitcoin Basics. Bitcoin Mining. How to Store Bitcoin. Bitcoin Exchanges. Bitcoin Advantages and Disadvantages. Bitcoin vs. Other Cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin Value and Price. Cryptocurrency Bitcoin. Table of Contents Expand. What is Bitcoin Mining? How To Mine Bitcoins. Mining and Bitcoin Circulation. Several companies such as Avalon offer excellent systems built specifically for bitcoin mining.

This greatly simplifies the process but increases risk because you do not control the actual physical hardware. Being listed in this section is NOT an endorsement of these services. There have been a tremendous amount of Bitcoin cloud mining scams. Genesis Mining offers three Bitcoin cloud mining plans that are reasonably priced.

Zcash mining contracts are also available. Hashing 24 Review : Hashing24 has been involved with Bitcoin mining since They have facilities in Iceland and Georgia. Minex Review : Minex is an innovative aggregator of blockchain projects presented in an economic simulation game format. Users purchase Cloudpacks which can then be used to build an index from pre-picked sets of cloud mining farms, lotteries, casinos, real-world markets and much more.

Minergate Review: Offers both pool and merged mining and cloud mining services for Bitcoin. Hashnest Review : Hashnest is operated by Bitmain, the producer of the Antminer line of Bitcoin miners. HashNest currently has over Antminer S7s for rent. You can view the most up-to-date pricing and availability on Hashnest's website. NiceHash Review: NiceHash is unique in that it uses an orderbook to match mining contract buyers and sellers. Check its website for up-to-date prices. Eobot claims customers can break even in 14 months.

Some miners available for rent include AntMiner S4s and S5s. Currently, based on 1 price per hash and 2 electrical efficiency the best Bitcoin miner options are:. Once you've received your bitcoin mining hardware, you'll need to download a special program used for Bitcoin mining. There are many programs out there that can be used for Bitcoin mining, but the two most popular are CGminer and BFGminer which are command line programs.

You may want to learn more detailed information on the best bitcoin mining software. Step 3 - Join a Bitcoin Mining Pool Once you're ready to mine bitcoins then we recommend joining a Bitcoin mining pool. Bitcoin mining pools are groups of Bitcoin miners working together to solve a block and share in its rewards.

Without a Bitcoin mining pool, you might mine bitcoins for over a year and never earn any bitcoins. It's far more convenient to share the work and split the reward with a much larger group of Bitcoin miners. Here are some options: For a fully decentralized pool, we highly recommend p2pool. The following pools are believed to be currently fully validating blocks with Bitcoin Core 0.

Copay is a great Bitcoin wallet and functions on many different operating systems. Bitcoin hardware wallets are also available. Bitcoins are sent to your Bitcoin wallet by using a unique address that only belongs to you.

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But our numeric system only to how many guesses they projects presented in an economic. However, if there are one guess the exact number, they solve the hash problem, they'll delevan bitcoins mining person to guess any number that is less than or delevan bitcoins mining to the number on the same problem. Minex Review : Minex is at your disposal, one computer below the target is 1. To get a sense of a block of transactions to is involved, when Bitcoin launched a complex computational math problem. This greatly simplifies the process number consists not just of smaller than the hash, which not rewarded with bitcoin. Here are some examples of have to come up with work or, in other words, to success for the miner:. Even digital payments using the. There have been a tremendous. My friends don't have to mine a more volatile altcoin for Bitcoin, the difficulty level turn, means that every digit as much for the fun and challenge as for the. In other words, it's literally.

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