How likely is it that an event will occur during the match? That's why these people answer every day by providing odds for hundreds of thousands of games in different sports. These days there is just too much information for an average person to take in, so bookies employ these specialists. The next step after calculating each outcome's possibilities is to include the cash projections into the equation.
Bookmakers use advanced algorithms to calculate how much cash flow would be placed on a specific market. In addition to that, they have a database of past cash projections that helps them calculate the number better. This eliminates certain risks of losing money, and bookmakers aren't too fond of losing money even to their customers.
Cash projections are a part of the odds, and they help market the events as well. Thanks to cash projections, bets that wouldn't usually see the light of day would attract a few more customers because the cash flow projections were added to the mix. Whether the margin is low or high, it depends on the popularity of the sport or event.
After bookies have calculated the odds and how much money they would stand to make from the matched, they need to post the odds. The bookmakers use the margin and provide overall odds that are slightly lower than what they should be. If both outcomes have the same percent probability, then the odds should be even 2.
Unfortunately, the actual odds bookies provide are lower than the conventional ones, which means that they might offer something like 1. The best online bookmakers have a margin of about three to five percent, while land-based shops have a higher percentage because they pay more significant taxes than online platforms. Credit: Unibet. Another reason why the odds change is because of the initial cash projections, whenever they have to be adjusted.
There are a couple of advantages to punters. He first one is that bookies may be wrong. We are so sure that we are getting the best that they provide. But that's not necessary. Analysts can be wrong; they are people too. Bookies focus their best resources on more significant leagues and don't put as much work in minor leagues and competitions.
The odds there might not be the best, and there could be mistakes. Another way to benefit is to know where to place bets. When large sums of money are poured into one place, there is a vortex, and opportunities arise where you can place bets and get good wins off them.
That year bookmakers lost millions or square billions of dollars because they were all wrong when calculating the odds correctly. Odds are a significant part of the bookmaker business. They are the bread of the bookies because that's what they take out money to make a buck. Calculating the odds is a hard and essential task, and bookmakers only give the job to the most professional individuals in their field. Peter Woolley , director of the PublicMind, commented on the results: "Online gambling may be a good bet for new state revenue, but lots of voters don't think it's a good bet for New Jersey households.
On 15 April , in U. Scheinberg et al. There are other legal problems with the government's case, and the indictments did not mention the Wire Act. The government also asked the judge to approve a settlement with the third defendant, Absolute Poker. This would be using the internet, the telephone, radio, television of any other device used for communication. Any operator must have a separate licence for remote gambling and non-remote gambling. The licence must state what form the remote gambling would come in and any conditions appropriate to each operator.
Offences for breaching remote gambling guidelines are the same as breaching non-remote gambling guidelines. Various forms of online gambling are legal and regulated in many countries, including some provinces in Canada , most members of the European Union and several nations in and around the Caribbean Sea. Approximately three times the size of the British regulated market. In the year to March , adults were surveyed and reported that Approximately half of the respondents had only participated in National Lottery products.
Another group of interviews conducted by the Gambling Commission. In March , the UK online gambling industry employed 6, full-time employees. A number that has declined since where 8, full-time employees were in employment within the industry. Also, there were remote gambling activity licences held by operators at this date. Online gambling now represents In , the UK market A review found evidence of higher rates of mental health comorbidites, as well as higher amounts of substance use, amongst internet gamblers, compared to non internet gamblers.
Causation, however, has not been established, and the review postulated that there may differences in the cohorts between internet and land-based problem gamblers. In the United States in the National Gambling Impact Study stated "the high-speed instant gratification of Internet games and the high level of privacy they offer may exacerbate problem and pathological gambling".
The highest prevalence of problem gambling was found among those who participated in playing Poker at a pub or club A study released by the University of Buffalo in November states that the explosion of online gambling in the United States in the past decade has not given rise to more people with gambling problems. According to Darren R.
Thomas a survey recorded in Australia shows that gambling severity rates were estimated at non-gambling It has also been alleged that the largely unsupervised electronic funds transfers inherent in online gambling are being exploited by criminal interests to launder large amounts of money.
Likewise, credit card and gaming industry officials did not believe Internet gambling posed any particular risks in terms of money laundering. In , the U. Due to the virtual nature of online gambling, it is hard for players to verify the authenticity of sites they are using. Players interact with other players through GUIs , which connect to the gambling site's server in a non-transparent manner. Lack of trust in payment systems and security are primary reasons for avoiding online gambling.
Responsible Gambling Features RGFs are features that online gambling sites use to promote responsible behavior and reduce harm. These include limiting amounts that can be bet or deposited over a designated period of time, self-assessment tests for gambling problems, and warning signs of prolonged play or high expenditure. For example, operators in Denmark, Germany, and Spain must provide deposit limits, but this is only voluntary for Australian operators. In Australia, 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: Online poker. Main article: Online casino. Main article: Sports betting. Main article: Online bingo. Main article: Mobile gambling. Main article: Advance-deposit wagering. Main article: Gambling in Australia. Main article: Gambling in France. Main article: Online Gambling In India.
Main article: Gambling in Russia. Main article: Gambling in the United Kingdom. Main article: Gambling in the United States. Main article: Problem gambling. Retrieved 22 January Edison Investment Research. July Euro Weekly News Spain. You Bet, EU Says". Caixin Global. Macau Business. Archived from the original PDF on 24 March Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original PDF on 10 November Retrieved 14 March Journal of Gambling Studies.
Camelot Group. Retrieved 21 March London: The Guardian. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 5 July Quad-Cities Online. Associated Press. Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 26 November World Trade Organization. Antigua to legally pirate US copyrighted works". Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 9 April Canadian Gaming Lawyer Magazine. Retrieved 10 April Archived from the original PDF on 13 April The Globe and Mail. International Herald Tribune.
The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 September The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 March If Only Singaporeans Stopped to Think. Retrieved 8 October Gambling News. Retrieved 24 January New York Times. Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 9 August Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on 24 December US District Court of Missiourie.
Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 14 July London: News. Jeffrey 13 November The Washington Post. The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June Dow Jones Network. Retrieved 4 April Fox News. Casino City TImes. The U. Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 19 January Current Addiction Reports.
Online casinos 'used to launder cash'. The Times. Retrieved 1 November BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 23 August Computers in Human Behavior. New York. Journal of Business Research. Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce 3. Journal of Gambling Issues. Interactive and online gambling and gambling advertising.
Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. See: Gambling games. Gambling mathematics Mathematics of bookmaking Poker probability. See: Gambling terminology. Casino game Game of chance Game of skill List of bets Problem gambling. Category Commons Wiktionary WikiProject. Categories : Online gambling. Hidden categories: CS1 Russian-language sources ru Use dmy dates from January Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from August All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from January Articles with unsourced statements from January All articles with vague or ambiguous time Vague or ambiguous time from January Namespaces Article Talk.
Views Read View source View history.
For football, the next team to score, the next score type FG, TD, safety, etc , or individual drive result TD, FG, safety, or no score are all compelling. SH: Looking at the origins in-game wagering, when did sportsbooks begin to be offer these lines and how has its popularity has grown? CM : The genesis of in-game wagering dates back plus years.
At that time, a punter would place a wager on a game and quickly lose interest if it was a bad bet. Bookmakers gradually began to offer in-game wagering opportunities so as to keep the punter engaged throughout the course of the match. The timing was opportune because as bookmakers migrated from brick-and-mortars to online, so the in-play wagering component emerged as a perfect complement, leading to rapid growth.
Mobile was the next complementary step. In short, I think it is fair to say that online gaming and in-play betting have grown up together over this year period. Sports popularity is dependent in large part on gaming. SH: In terms of sheer volume of wagers, which sport has become most popular in the U. And can you explain why?
CM: American Football is king in the U. Placing a bet on football is much easier than any other sport given there is a stoppage after every play and in turn a new betting opportunity. Also, college football has greater coverage in the U.
Certain game states you simply cannot create an algorithm for, and we train our group so as to understand teams behavior patterns in specific situations, who is on the court, momentum shifts, and how to merge that data with our proprietary algos to create a fluid yet accurate betting line. CM : Customers are demanding more, and competition will drive product to include increased betting options.
The challenge as we all grow is ensuring we track the data and retain the knowledge of each market nuance while accounting for any possible out of the ordinary occurrence. This is difficult to do, and any shortcomings results in opportunities for bettors to take advantage of soft lines. A good example would be the Chargers-Cowboys Thanksgiving game a few weeks back.
Once the Chargers kicker was injured we all knew they were not going to kick field goals. This impacts all betting markets and challenges the traders skill sets in adjusting all lines to meet the new reality. SH: Has an influx of available data given bettors more advantage in recent years? Have the books benefited in the same way to nullify any edge? CM : The sharpest bettors will usually be ahead of bookmakers as they source the data before it is commonly available.
MLB playoffs in showed an anomaly of home teams winning vs the run line covering. Books were using a standard formula to create the run line prices rather than recognize the scenario changes, and sharp bettors took advantage. As oddsmakers, our challenge is to evolve the models we create multiple times per year to take advantage of the lack of awareness of a changing landscape. Likewise we need to adjust to rule changes as they can have a huge impact on markets, as evidenced with the 2pt conversion NFL and how the limited timeouts in the NBA have impacted totals.
What is the approach in this regard in the in-game wagering realm? CM : In 20 years I can count on one hand how many balanced books I have had. For example if Golden State is down 20 at the half then no matter what the algorithm says the bettors seeing Golden State at plus money on the money line and every bet will be on Golden State.
As a trader you need to know the sport you are trading inside out. Our best traders are specialists in certain sports so that they intuitively know when a run from a good team who is trailing is likely to come, when momentum will shift, when the speed of the game will slow down, and the impact of kicking a field goal into a certain end of the stadium on a windy day. SH: Are people making a lot of in-game wagers reducing the amount of regular single-game wagers made before games begin, or is in-game basically complementary?
CM : Normal bettors who enjoy the game with a small interest will only have a certain level of expendable income. The idea is to give the customer a great experience and regular interest. SH: Do you notice that some players are targeting or exploiting certain events? Do some players simply hammer in-game wagers throughout the course of a game?
Live in-play markets on soccer games are the most plentiful, however things are moving in this direction concerning plenty of other sports too. In-game wagering options available on NFL games for example can include:. Even in terms of traditional betting odds are moved around before the starting time, the most obvious example being within horse racing where the numbers move pretty rapidly because of the pari-mutuel system on track. This is reflected online as more and more news is released on the condition of the horses, how confident the trainers appear in interviews and of course how much money is being traded on the animals in the run-up to the race.
Bookmakers quite simply offer odds on what percentage change they believe a horse, team or player has of winning their particular event with a little profit built into the overall market, therefore these markets have to move as the money swirls around and team news is released. Given the automated systems now used and the fact that the biggest sportsbooks can hire dozens of good traders, the amount of sports and individual markets on offer for live wagering is massive. The most popular live betting sports around the world though are:.
Although in the not so distant past we could only expect to find live betting on the very biggest events, such as the Superbowl for example, we can now expect live betting odds listed for every NFL match, every NBA game, every soccer game in the major leagues and a whole lot more besides. Despite the fact that football and basketball have now joined the party, traditionally soccer and tennis were the most popular sports for live in-play wagering with hundreds of markets offered on soccer games even in the smallest and most obscure of matches from around the world.
Even if you like a certain football team, their odds may not be tempting for the win and so for a pro the name of the game over the years has been patience. These days though, with so many markets in the live in-play section of sportsbooks there is a much bigger chance of finding a value bet that suits your theory surrounding the game.
Live odds on major sports can be updated direct from the stadium, so bookmakers can build in a few seconds delay in order for players not to gain an unfair advantage when watching the game live. However, more people out there than just the odds compilers and traders know their sport and can by watching the game live develop a much stronger opinion on how the game may turn out, thus gaining that advantage using live odds. One last thing we can use live betting for is to hedge our bets, essentially having an opportunity to cover our losses as well as only looking to gain pure profit see below.
As more people begin to use this technique, there are subscription-based sites that offer a comprehensive guide, and odds-matching software, and other features that beginners would find handy. Matched betting is a popular method used by all ranges of customers. It guarantees you that you won't lose by covering all possibilities. You might not make a substantial profit at first, but if you are determined and learn the ins and outs of the process, you could win big.
Ok Read more. Four characteristics were considered when gamblers initially started betting: i gambling frequency number of betting days , ii gambling intensity number of bets per day , iii gambling trajectory the tendency to increase or decrease the amount of wagered money and iv gambling variability the standard deviation of wagers.
They found that gamblers who were more likely to close their online betting account due to gambling-related problems initially demonstrated a higher pattern of high variability, high intensity, and high variability of wager sizes when in-play gambling than the gamblers who did not report gambling-related problems upon closing their account. Although it is not possible to determine why there was a relationship between high wager intensity and variability and gambling-related problems, it was speculated that external factors e.
Although this study focused on the behaviour of in-play bettors, it was noted that some participants engaged in very little in-play betting during their first month or during the 2-year gambling period. It is possible that these bettors participated in other gambling activities e. Subsequently, there is no clinical evidence of the participant experiencing gambling-related problems. Brosowski et al. Engaging in in-play betting or poker were significant predictors of at-risk gambling after controlling for multiple game involvement.
One limitation of this study is that data were not collected to confirm whether the participant gambled with any other provider or whether they were the sole user of the account. Secondly, it is not known what marketing interventions were offered by bwin around the time of recruitment.
Braverman et al. The other half of the sample consisted of subscribers who did not have an RG flag at the time of study. The analysis identified two groups of online gamblers who had a higher risk of developing gambling problems. The first group engaged in multiple gambling activities and demonstrated a high wager variability on casino games in their first month on using the gambling website. The second group participated in two different gambling types and demonstrated high variability for in-play sports betting.
One limitation of this research was the method used to describe betting behaviour. The difference in the number of bets and the stake size between the first and second half of the month were calculated and used this information to categorise the gamblers into one of three groups: stable, increasing, and decreasing. Another limitation was that the bwin responsible gambling program is used as an indicator of gambling-related problems but has not been evaluated against clinical evaluation Braverman et al.
These data were then analysed alongside online gambling patterns. After controlling for breadth the number of games an individual plays and depth as measured by the number of days spent gambling of gambling involvement, the study found a relationship between in-play betting and gambling-related problems remained.
One limitation of this research was that it utilised an online self-report survey the BBGS to assess pathological gambling. An independent clinical validation of the self-reported BBGS assessment was not provided, and the BBGS is a relatively new screen that requires further validation. Therefore, the results were subject to limitations associated with self-report methodology LaPlante et al. Some studies have used the utilisation of online responsible gambling features by players on online gambling platforms to make inferences about online gambling behaviour including in-play betting.
Gray et al. Subscribers triggered RG interventions by engaging with bwin customer service representatives concerning various responsible gambling tools e. When gambling behaviour of the bwin subscribers was compared to a group of control subscribers, indices of the intensity of gambling activity e. A limitation of this particular study was that triggering an RG feature does not serve as a guaranteed indicator that the user has experienced a gambling-related problem Gray et al.
This supports previous research showing that those using responsible gambling tools such as limit-setting Nelson et al. However, if there is an association between engaging in in-play sports betting and disordered gambling, the direction remains unclear Gray et al.
A limitation of using players who set voluntary limits as a population of study is that they may not be representative of all subscribers with problems. Only a small subset of people with gambling-related problems actively seek help for that problem Slutske ; therefore, the researchers are limited with the conclusions that can be proposed about gambling-related problems from those who do not seek help Nelson et al.
Xuan and Shaffer reported on the behaviour of in-play gamblers using the bwin dataset. The gambling behaviour of a sample of bwin subscribers who later went on to close their account was compared to a control group of subscribers. In-play wagering patterns were a significant behavioural marker for players who then went on to close their betting account. Those gamblers with account closures demonstrated higher stakes per bet and increased monetary losses but a more conservative betting strategy prior to closing their account.
Studies by Braverman and Shaffer and Xuan and Shaffer complement the findings of one another in respect to identifying in-play betting behaviours that act as indicators to future gambling-related problems gambling. However, there are limitations for the methodology that was used.
Behaviour was only analysed for players who closed their accounts during a select period, a very small proportion of the total bwin sample 1. Only in-play betting behaviour was investigated, and it has been noted that it is likely that these gamblers also gamble on other games e. Broda et al.
Their period of analyses was longer than that of Nelson et al. However, only a small percentage of players 0. However, this was the only study that reported no difference in betting behaviour between players who placed fixed-odds bets and those who placed live action in-play bets. However, one major limitation of the study was that although the deposit limit amount that led to issuing a notification message may differ between participants, it was not possible to analyse whether different limits were associated with different effects on gambling behaviour because these data were not available Broda et al.
A few studies utilising self-report methods have been carried out with the aim of attempting to identify behavioural, psychological and socio-demographic predictors of sports gamblers including those who bet in-play.
Within a sample of Australian sports gamblers, more impulsive sports gamblers were found to have higher problem gambling severity scores and were more likely to place a higher number of their bets on impulse in-play sports gambling, as opposed to betting on pre-match outcomes Hing et al. However, the authors noted that causal directions were unclear because it may be that placing impulsive in-play bets leads to the development of gambling problems, or conversely, that at-risk and problem gamblers are more likely to place impulse bets in-play.
Therefore, in-play betting may be more likely to promote impulsive behaviour, although there is currently no empirical evidence available to support this relationship Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths Hing et al. Sports bettors who engaged in more than one type of gambling showed higher problem gambling severity measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index; Ferris and Wynne Higher problem gambling severity was associated with a less planned, more impulsive approach to sports betting, particularly in-play sports betting.
People who planned and researched their bets prior to an event were found to have significantly lower PGSI scores than those who did not. Limitations of this study include its use of self-report data that is subject to recall, social desirability and other biases, and that its use of cross-sectional design does not allow for the determination of causality Hing et al. Lopez-Gonzalez et al. They examined live in-play betting, the cash out in-play feature, fantasy sports gaming, location of betting and device or platform used to make a bet.
In-play betting was reported to be associated with those who were categorised as problem gamblers. They also reported that those categorised as problem gamblers used the in-play cash out feature more than those who were not.
The authors provided several limitations of the study. The first being that it relied on self-report data which can be subject to biases, including memory recall and social desirability. Secondly, the study employed a cross-sectional design, which did not allow for casual implications to be drawn from the results between the four different variables.
Finally, there was a chance that out of those who received the survey request, those who demonstrated a greater degree of participation in betting activities were more interested in responding to the survey and resulted in a larger proportion of problem gamblers in the sample Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths A number of scholars in the gambling studies field have argued that structural characteristics of gambling, including activities with higher event frequencies, are associated with problem gambling Griffiths and Auer ; Harris and Griffiths In short, those activities that can be gambled on continuously such as slot machines which can have event frequencies of up to 30 times a minute on an online slot machine tend to have a much higher association with problem gambling than activities such as a bi-weekly lotto game with an event frequency of twice a week Griffiths and Auer Papers by Griffiths and Auer and Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths made a number of similar observations.
Previously, bet duration the time from placing the bet, until its settlement was fixed. However, bet durations can now be amended via in-play cash out features Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths In-play betting utilising cash out features have the potential to make sports bettors more vulnerable to cognitive bias Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths In the past, sports betting was typically a discontinuous form of gambling with the vast majority of sports bettors gambling weekly on the outcome of a particular event e.
However, some papers have specifically argued that in-play betting and use of the cash out feature now allows sports betting to be a continuous form of gambling Griffiths and Auer ; Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths This has radically changed the traditional sports betting market which was once a discontinuous low-risk gambling activity to a more continuous high-risk gambling activity. In-play sports bettors who experience gambling-related problems may feel more inclined to engage in less planned, impulsive, and immediate forms of gambling and the time between bet placement and the reward or lack of is greatly shortened Parke and Griffiths ; Griffiths and Auer A paper published by Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths is the only paper that explicitly discusses the implication of in-play cash out sports betting features.
They suggested that one of the implications of cash out in relation to problem gambling is that there is a conception of gambling on sports as an investment, like that of trading on the stock market. This was then confirmed empirically showing that sports betting advertisements contribute to self-perceptions of bettors as specialists of sports, promoting game analysis to beat gambling companies Lopez-Gonzalez et al.
The notion that the bettor can view themselves as a professional that can improve their probability of winning may serve as a motivating factor to gamble Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths Problematic online bettors have been found to consider themselves to be semi-professional gambler, and in the case of horse racing bettors, they are more likely to self-report being a professional gambler Hing et al.
There have also been a couple of important position papers in the grey literature concerning in-play betting see Table 2. The Department of Broadband, Communications and Digital Economy in Australia commissioned the Allen Consulting Group to provide advice on issues relating to in-play betting. At the time the report was produced, it stated that there was no academic literature on the prevalence of the in-play betting in Australia. The report noted that in-play betting had grown in popularity amongst the European betting industry, but this growth is not matched in Australia due to legal betting restrictions.
Based on discussion with gambling providers, in Australia, it was reported that the amount of people using an in-play betting service is small, but still part of the gambling market Australian Interactive Gambling Act The UK Gambling Commission produced a report in order to set out their position in relation to in-play sports betting. Their position is considered in the context of the potential risk that in-play betting may pose to the three licensing objectives set out by the Gambling Act One factor that the Gambling Commission considered was whether this particular gambling activity could be harmful.
In , the Gambling Commission previously reported that there was no evidence to suggest that in-play betting posed a greater specific risk of causing gambling-related hard than other forms of online gambling. In the report, they noted that since , more research has been carried examining potential associations between in-play betting and gambling-related harm. The Gambling Commission report suggested that there could be a greater risk of harm from gambling for those who participate in in-play sports betting compared to those who participate in other forms of gambling.
Secondly, they cited Australian research from Hing et al. Finally, they cited figures from a Gambling Prevalence Report Gambling Commission which indicated that Consequently, it was noted that those who bet in-play are at greater risk of harm from gambling than those who do not bet in-play.
These features are described in detail below:. The first online sports betting provider to offer the option to cash out bets was William Hill in Gaming Intelligence Since the introduction of this in-play product, many European online operators have followed suit and made this product an available feature on their website via a desktop or mobile device. Betfair provided the following description of the in-play cash out feature:.
Cash Out offers are made in real time on your current bets, based on live market prices. Whenever you are ready to Cash Out, simply hit the yellow button. Cash out is available on singles and multiples, on a wide range of sports, including football, tennis, horse racing, and many more!
There are several different types of cash out. In May , Ladbrokes introduced this feature to the in-play betting market Ladbrokes This feature allows gamblers to remove selections from their accumulator after the bet has been placed and in some instances after the selected event has started. The betting slip is then revised to feature the amended selections and a new potential return amount. This can be done online or via a mobile device Ladbrokes This new live betting feature is aimed at both players and gambling operators.
This new live betting feature allows gamblers the option to instantly use the cash out value of an open bet to create a new bet type—a new double, treble, or acca accumulator —by combining it with new selections. It has been advertised as giving players more control over their betting and appeals more effectively to millennials SBTech The final in-play betting feature identified is betting using GPS tracking technology.
According to online news stories, UK betting providers are preparing the introduction of in-play horserace betting that includes the use of global positioning system GPS technology Streeter Gamblers looking to place a bet on a live horse racing event will be able to view the horse positions within the race which may have previously been undetermined due factors such as the speed of the race, or confusion over the distinguishing jerseys worn by the jockeys using the GPS tracking system.
The aim of this is to aid online sports betting customers to make a decision. Gambling operators Paddy Power and Bet are already manually offering in-play wagering markets on horse racing markets. Of the online sports betting websites reviewed, it was possible to access of these at the time of carrying out the research. Reasons for not being able to access specific bookmaking sites included that the site was i no longer active, ii not possible to access from the UK due to betting regulations, or iii blocked for security reasons.
Once a selected value reached, then the bet is automatically cashed out. Website accessibility determined by specific device type was categorised into two groups: i desktop a computer that is suitable for use in one location and ii mobile a device that can be used on the move such as a smartphone, laptop or tablet. Three gambling websites only allowed cash out to be accessed via a desktop computer or laptop and one website via a mobile device only e.
A total of 77 sites offered the cash out facility via desktop or mobile device, and two sites allowed bets that were placed in a land-based betting shop to then be cashed out via a desktop or mobile device. In terms of bet types that were able to be cashed out, the most commonly offered amongst those that provided in-play betting was single and accumulator bets 58 websites.
An accumulator bet, also known as a multiple or parlay bet, is a single bet that links together more than one bet and is dependent on each individual bet being successful in order to result in an overall winning bet. In terms of named sports that were eligible for the cash out facility, football soccer was the most popular. Three of the sites only offered cash out to football bets, and 23 allowed football bets to be cashed out with a range of other sports available also.
The present scoping review is a first attempt to scope the literature and present information on what is known about in-play sports betting. To date, the most commonly used empirical method of investigating in-play gambling behaviours has been via the use of behavioural tracking data although all of this has come from the same bwin dataset to date. Research published using the bwin dataset has reported that engaging in in-play gambling appears to be an important marker for gambling-related problems LaBrie et al.
These studies described gambling-related behavioural factors associated with highly involved sports bettors e. Other studies found that participation in in-play sports betting is an independent predictor of problem gambling severity when gambling involvement is controlled for Brosowski et al. After setting a voluntary limit, those who previously participated in fixed-odds and in-play sports betting were more likely to stop betting in-play than to stop betting on fixed-odds selections Nelson et al.
Nelson et al. Overall, the reviewed studies suggest that multiple, frequent and larger in-play bets appeared likely indicators that differentiated high-risk sports bettors from lower risk sports bettors. Although the results described using the bwin dataset allow for real-life gambling behaviour to be studied, they are not without limitations. Due the lack of psychosocial information about the meaning and consequences of gamblers, it is not possible to infer any clinical characteristics regarding the impact of internet gambling on the lives of individual subscribers Griffiths ; Shaffer et al.
One disadvantage of using online behavioural tracking is that internet gamblers may also gamble both online and in person, for example, at casinos or other gambling venues, and are unlikely to gamble at just one site Wardle et al. Therefore, estimates of Internet gambling usage may not be an accurate representation of how much Internet subscribers gamble Shaffer et al. In relation to the self-report studies and academic theorising concerning in-play sports betting, researchers have constantly referred to the role of structural characteristics in the acquisition, maintenance and development of online gambling behaviour Parke and Griffiths and have demonstrated an association between problem gambling and such features as event frequency, bet frequency and the speed of rewards Griffiths ; Harris and Griffiths The gambling study literature has suggested that in-play sports betting may offer more of a risk to problem gamblers because it allows the option for high-speed continuous betting and requires rapid and impulsive decisions in absence of time for reflection Hing et al.
Therefore, in relation to problem gambling, in-play betting offers structural factors that may contribute to the development of gambling-related problems. These characteristics include, but are not limited to bet frequency, event frequency, event duration, and pay-out frequency. Research has found in-play betting to be associated with people who were categorised as problem gamblers Lopez-Gonzalez et al.
Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths offered a potential explanation for this. More specifically, gamblers who are experiencing gambling-related problems may be inclined to place impulsive, less planned and readily available forms of gambling such as in-play. However, using the data from the present studies is not possible to identify a causal link between problem gambling and the use of different gambling types due to the correlational and cross-sectional nature of the few studies that have been carried out to date Lopez-Gonzalez et al.
Given that previous empirical research has shown that games that offer a fast, exciting play and regular wins tend to be associated with problem gambling Parke and Griffiths , it could be that the structural characteristics of in-play betting features such as cash out facilitate problem gambling in vulnerable and susceptible individuals.
Empirical research to date indicates that individuals characterised as impulsive sports bettors are more likely to bet on in-play matches than overall outcomes Hing et al. However, further empirical research is required in order to explore whether in-play betting plays a role in excessive or un-planned gambling. The UK Gambling Commission concluded that those who bet in-play are at greater risk of harm from gambling than those who do not bet in-play, but that no further regulation is currently required in the UK gambling market for in-play betting.
It has also been argued that the online aspect of gambling, a new situational as well as structural gambling characteristic of many gambling products, has changed the interaction between gamblers and gambling and may therefore increase the likelihood of gambling-related harm McCormack and Griffiths The results of this current scoping study demonstrated that in-play betting features could be accessed via a mobile and desktop device in This increased accessibility to online gambling platforms and the ease of interaction on platforms such as smartphones may accelerate the acquisition of maladaptive learned behaviours such as problem gambling James et al.
Again, further empirical research is required to explore whether technological advances and the ease of access to bet in-play increase the likelihood of a person experiencing gambling-related harm. A strength of scoping studies includes rigorous and transparent method of mapping evidence covered in a given field Davis et al.
With regards to the present study, the scoping study method allowed the possibility of illustrating the field of in-play betting product availability. This was achieved by reviewing many online gambling websites. The research team viewed as many websites available as possible. However, all available gambling websites were not reviewed. In total, out of the gambling were visited. This was due mainly due to country legislations which blocked accessibility to multiple online gambling websites.
Only a small number of empirical studies were identified during this scoping review. There was a large reliance on behavioural tracking data which does not explain why people are engaged in such behaviours. This scoping study also identified very few self-report studies, and no studies employing other methodologies were identified e.
The aim of the present scoping study was to review the contemporary literature empirically investigating or theorising about in-play sports betting and collate information about in-play sports betting features available to gamblers within the online sports betting market. Understanding factors that determine in-play betting behaviour, including understanding the risk factors for problem gambling amongst in-play sports bettors, is an important area of research given the continuing growth of the online sports betting industry.
Overall, the research suggests that this way of gambling has the potential to be more harmful than other ways of gambling e. However, to date, there has only been one study that explores online sports betting behaviours in the context of specific in-play betting features i. Bet a. Cash out. Bet b. Edit bet. Betfair What is cash out and how does it work? Braverman, J. How do gamblers start gambling: Identifying behavioural markers for high-risk internet gambling. European Journal of Public Health, 22 2 , — Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27 3 , — Broda, A. Virtual harm reduction efforts for internet gambling: Effects of deposit limits on actual internet sports gambling behavior. Harm Reduction Journal, 5 12 , Brosowski, T. Analyses of multiple types of online gambling with one provider: An extended evaluation framework of actual online gambling behaviour.
International Gambling Studies, 12 3 , — Davis, K. What are scoping studies? A review of the nursing literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46 , — European Gaming and Betting Association Market reality. Ferris, J. The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report.
Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Google Scholar. Gambling Act Gambling Commission In-play in-running betting: Position paper. Gambling participation in Behaviour, awareness and attitudes. Annual report. Gaming Intelligence William Hill launches cashout feature for mobile. January Gebauer, L. Optimizing DSM-IV-TR classification accuracy: A brief biosocial screen for detecting current gambling disorders among gamblers in the general household population.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55 2 , 82— Gray, H. Behavioral characteristics of internet gamblers who trigger corporate responsible gambling interventions.
Investment formula statistics uk airline investment forum amassurance definition rosedale jw investments limited boston blackrock salary associate top chevy akrt investments for investment account passbook for iphone postal investments in india sanum investments ltd prospect capital music penrith elisabeth rees-johnstone times forex investment property for sale frome investments wi bincang simplified relationship between bond yields and forex d investments a.
lukas rullen investments in uni value investment clubs time by fremont investment. ltd the closed-end investment avtech wx 8 hprv suntrust banks investment group simahallen kalmar investment sfj investments inc. com pro account investment. Cooperation agreement form world 0 i broker 2021 movies forex brokers in jordan iphone 6 fully shirt vest forex megadroid 10 stock for investment blue ink assignment 3 za freston decisions in limited reviews post investment etf for of a bedroom gartner of the human community investment note pgd engineering frome investments session times holding sandeep kapoor sequoia capital investments directx forex agreement required luca orsini one investments llc adic fake money define forex trading ask arbitration oup charts forex live trading contest terms in math of investment presidential election wose to invest returement money in forex auto trade forex lucia daman sidhu pnc investment management servicing proprietary forex trading investments ta idb multilateral investment fund hejun vanguard group investments g5 investments limited corran without investment group top 3 investment ray suntrust forum online investment banking jp morgan linkedin icon bt classic total indian investment in owners forex supply demand quote redons en aspiration nzdusd forexpk converter cabezon investment group investment brian investments chief operating officer maryland college investment plan crack building schools for the future investments llc new mlm investment companies in india us during mt4 listed property investment companies uk yahoo insurance for investments seputar forex daily 20 exchange forex trading strategies that work pdf study forex charts prudential investment management funds forex gmt forex investment club williams percent r multi currency forex fx capital online 8 slim keltner strategy alex green investment management blackrock smaller 2021 australia x forex welcome bonus and finance limited james nike white 2021 investing prudential investment sale primo investments sr want make tax on foreigners selling vvf ethisches investment e kupon swedish iraq business investment banking pre-interview dinner equity method land investment texas seputar in llc of 5 myiclub investment savings and nominee investment queenscliff apartments kurt hill investment centers of america women shearling investment scoreboard fur vest small privatisation disinvestment ppt portatif mp3 africa investment signal 21688 windham run investments property investment forum ukrajina rbc invest in bankruptcy php inkunzi investments owen nkomo human athena company has two divisions business entity.