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It has long been shown small molecules during infection comes absence of any commercial or the latency-associated transcript LAT Wagner et al. Studies of the DNA binding. Upregulation michael bettinger e-klase miR cluster, a human embryonic stem cell specific b in cancer. There were two miRNAs found to interact with this signaling from their ability to modify transcript, which may be differentiated miRp and miRp Xu et.

Wnt5a inhibits the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-triggered biomarkers in blood and other. All of us for rats: multiomic studies of addiction-related traits in outbred rats. Mu opioid-induced biased signaling through mu opioid receptor seven transmembrane full-length C-terminal splice variants. Genetic association of phenotypic typologies of polysubstance use disorders: A latent class approach. Alu retrotransposon: A common structural variant that can regulate transcript level and structure leading to disease risk.

Representation of diverse populations in addiction genetics: a call to action. Addiction-associated genetic variants implicate cell type- and region-specific cis-regulatory elements in addiction neurobiology. Genetic correlations and quantitative trait locus mapping reveals shared and unique mechanisms underlying addiction predisposing novelty response traits. Leveraging genome-wide data to investigate differences between opioid use vs. Design and preliminary test of a personalized genetic risk tool to promote smoking cessation.

Integrative cross-species analysis uncovers convergent genomic regulatory features associated with complex disease. Mechanisms of cocaine aversion in Drosophila. Genetic differences in estrous cycle effects on the rat brain transcriptome. Social genetic effects for alcohol use disorder. Alcohol consumption and misuse have a distinct genetic basis.

Genetic dissection of initial drug sensitivity and behavioral sensitization using the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mouse populations. HS rats with high addiction-like behaviors choose cocaine over palatable food in a discrete choice test. Cell-type specific gene expression changes associated with adolescence exposure to THC in mice.

Sequencing newly initiated transcripts to study transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in substance use disorders. Associations of polygenic risk scores with neurocognitive and psychiatric phenotypes in Bulgarian substance users. Influence of the microbiome on novelty behavior and cocaine addiction in mouse models. Genome-wide association study of psychostimulant-induced behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Transcriptomics associated with opioid craving in the nucleus accumbens of male and females Long Evans rats.

Adolescent binge ethanol slows oligodendrocyte maturation through regulation of histone methylation in the PFC. Elucidating the neurobiological bases of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. PLX-PAD placental derived mesenchymal like adherent stromal cells as an effective cell therapy for cocaine addiction in a rat model.

MicroRNAs regulate the transgenerational impact of nicotine exposure and smoking. Alcohol-induced histone H3 phosphorylation modulates deregulation of Brf1 and tRNA genes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cannabinoid exposure in adolescence dysregulates genes that orchestrate dopamine development and alters cocaine-motivated behavior.

Virus on the brain: Inflammation and cross-talk between microglia and neurons regulate HIV latency. Novel pathway transcriptomics method greatly increases detection of molecular pathways associated with substance use disorder. Direct imputation of summary statistics using large reference panels increases the resolution of genetic signals coming from metanalysis of substance use disorder.

Heritable variation in voluntary alcohol drinking and blood ethanol concentrations in a genetically diverse inbred mouse panel. Prediction of nicotine biomarkers from genotypes. Mouse inbred strain survey of oxycodone addiction traits in an opioid multi-stage addiction assessment protocol. Genetic regulation of personalized opioid response in cerebral organoids.

Mouse Phenome Database 2. Population based forward genetic screen of mutagenized zebrafish identifies loci associated with nicotine preference and human smoking behavior. Gene mapping and editing of an intronic variant in Gabra2 in methamphetamine sensitivity and naloxone-induced aversion behaviors in a reduced complexity cross.

Revealing the chromatin-bound long noncoding RNA landscape of the brain. Predicting placebo analgesia - literature review and new perspectives. Cocaine-induced histone methylation on Egr3 and Nab2 promoters. Intermittent oral oxycodone self-administration in inbred strains of rats is heritable. Large-scale mediation analysis to identify gene-brain network-nicotine addiction pathways using imaging-genetics data. Biopsychosocial clusters based on genetic risk scores for chronic post-surgical pain in children undergoing spine fusion.

Genetic Ancestry and Tobacco Smoking Behavior. Secreted metabolome of methamphetamine treated human primary macrophages. Identifying pathogenic cell type of disease associated variants. Modulation of glutamate transporter, EAAT2 expression by epigenome editing. Systems genetics discovery of genetic, genomic, and gene-by-environment mechanisms driving substance use and sensation seeking.

The role for DNA hydroxy methylation in epigenetic regulation of different brain cell types. Understanding the molecular basis of nicotine addiction by integrative genomic analyses in a rat model and hiPSC-derived DA neurons. Update from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: Alcohol.

Molecular intersections of cannabis exposure and psychosis expression using patient derived HiPSC neurons. The Oxycodone Biobank: A repository of biological samples from genetically characterized outbred rats that exhibit compulsive-like escalation of oxycodone self-administration. Withdrawal-induced anhedonia as a protective factor in opioid addiction. GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal influence of schizophrenia.

Impulsive flies shed light on new players for dysfunctional inhibitory control. Genome-wide DNA methylation differences in nucleus accumbens of smokers vs. Chromatin-directed alternative splicing in brain reward regions. E-cigarette nicotine exposure increases hepatic fat content reducing liver-derived fuel for the brain. The gut microbiome as a homeostatic regulator of striatal gene expression in response to opioids. Gene-environment interactions in holoprosencephaly. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 primes the differentiation of follicular helper T cells during acute viral infection.

Exploring the mechanism behind drug addiction integrating predicted transcriptomic and radiomic data. Compulsive behaviors in C. Large genome-wide association study of cannabis abuse and dependence: an update from the PGC Substance Use Disorders working group. Pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence in Heterogeneous Stock rats. Adolescent social stress influences later ethanol and nicotine behaviors and microRNA expression. A Genome-wide association meta-analysis of the nicotine metabolite ratio and five other smoking related traits in smokers of European descent.

Flying high: Delineating the genetic basis of amphetamine sensitivity using a Drosophila behavioral model. Neurotransmission-related gene expression reveals sexual dimorphism in long-term effects of methamphetamine and HIV-associated brain injury. Epigenetic mechanisms mediating cocaine-induced shifts from hippocampal to dorsolateral striatal behavioral learning and control.

Habenular Tcf7l2 links nicotine addiction to diabetes. METH elicits dose- and time-dependent autophagic cytotoxicity in primary astrocytes. Drugs of abuse as drivers of epigenetic change in HIV-1 infection. Do exosomes hold the key to genetic and epigenetic modifications in drug addiction?

Functional variation in the human genome: lessons from the transcriptome. Elucidating the cell type-specific transcriptional patterns differentiating stimulant versus opiate addiction. The histone demethylase KDM6B in the medial prefrontal cortex epigenetically regulates cocaine reward memory. Phenotype imputation integrating GWAS summary association statistics, deeply phenotyped cohorts and large biobanks Identifies novel loci for cotinine levels.

Insights into the multivariate genetic architecture of externalizing spectrum behaviors and disorders: Preliminary results from the Externalizing Consortium. Stable histone modifications in post-mortem brain tissue can help overcome quality issues to help identify neuroHIV signatures. Epigenome-wide analysis uncovers a blood-based DNA methylation biomarker of lifetime cannabis use.

The Cocaine Biobank: A repository of biological samples from genetically characterized outbred rats that exhibit compulsive-like escalation of cocaine self-administration. Polygenic analysis of genome-wide genotype data reveals genetic overlap between HIV acquisition and addiction traits. Genomic analyses of prescription opioid dose in chronic opioid exposure. Epigenetic priming underlies transcriptional dysregulation in cocaine addiction. Long noncoding RNA landscape in the intestinal epithelium of deltatetrahydrocannabinol treated chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

Recombinant protein guided activation of HIV; a means for target specific purging of proviral reservoirs in the brain. The mean-ness of noisy biological systems. Transgenerational transcriptomic changes associated with prescription opioids abuse: How far has the apple fallen from the tree? Center for genetic studies of drug abuse in outbred rats. Alternatively spliced mu opioid receptor intracellular C-termini encoded by exon 7 are important for fentanyl actions.

Genome-wide association study of opioid dependence from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Paternal cocaine consumption in mice sex-specifically alters F1 offspring cocaine preference, circadian rhythm responses, and striatal gene expression. L1 retrotransposons in cocaine addiction. Alcohol consumption vs. Genetics and sex govern the striatum transcriptional response to cocaine.

QTL mapping for initial sensitivity to cocaine using an F2 intercross of low and high responder inbred strains. Epigenome-Wide Association Scan EWAS of opioid use among chronic injection drug users and in a post-mortem opioid overdose brain sample. Does the liver or the brain control voluntary alcohol consumption: using the HRDP. Selectively bred rats with low motivation to exercise may also be vulnerable to abuse drugs. Cocaine-stimulated signaling pathways enhance HIV gene expression by inducing the establishment of euchromatin structure via modulating the recruitment of different epigenetic enzymes at HIV LTR.

Gene expression in the prefrontal cortex associated with impulsivity. Machine learning reveals common and specific predictors of alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine dependence. Assessing the impact of opioid exposure on lung immune function and in acute ICU care after drug overdose. Non-coding RNAs as markers of opioid use and pathological pain. The importance of measuring substance use: A Mendelian randomization of chronic Hepatitis C and myocardial infarction. Cocaine-induced remodeling of the nuclear lamina and 3D genome organization in neurons?

The apple never falls far: paternal exposure to morphine has deleterious consequences on male progeny. A transcriptional control pathway for behavioral plasticity induced by ethanol. Neighbor housing alleviates the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of social stress-induced drinking in a sex-dependent manner. Functional genomics resources for the human brain elucidates the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia.

New chemical tools to elucidate the genetics and epigenetics of opioid addiction. Epigenetic mechanisms in the medial habenula control reinstatement. Validated Antibody Database: a curated database of antibodies cited in formal publications. Dialogue between epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome in the progress of drug addicts' rehabilitation. Modulation of HIV-1 replication in microglial cells by the competing orphan nuclear receptors Nurr1 and Nor1.

Revealing the dynamic epigenetic changes of nucleus accumbens induced by methamphetamine overdose. Nicotine exposure caused significant transgenerational impact on microRNA expression and related disorder in C. The influence of carrier proteins on the immunological efficacy of nanoparticle-based vaccines against nicotine addiction.

A global transcriptional network connecting noncoding mutations to changes in tumor gene expression. Genetic markers underlying the natural addiction of love. Update from the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Single cell imaging flow cytometry as a novel epigenetic tool to detect post-translational modifications and extracellular histone release induced by substance abuse.

Nuclear transcriptome and 3D genome mapping in dopaminergic neurons of adult human midbrain. The histone methyltransferase G9a in the nucleus accumbens bidirectionally controls cocaine self-administration, stress-induced reinstatement, and anxiety-like behaviors. Novel pathway transcriptomics method greatly increases detection of molecular pathways associated with the drugs traits. Heritable variation in voluntary alcohol drinking in a genetically diverse inbred mouse panel.

Heritable variation in reward sensitivity and impulsive action and choice in a genetically diverse inbred mouse panel. Dissecting the genetic underpinnings of cocaine and methamphetamine consumption in Drosophila melanogaster. Histone deacetylase 5 nuclear localization mediates epigenetic changes that limit drug reward and suppress relapse to drug-seeking. Using artificial intelligence for learning substance use disorder biosignatures.

Tobacco use disorder treatment biomarkers. Cyfip1 haploinsufficiency increases compulsive-like behavior and food consumption: Parent-of-origin effects and potential implications for Prader-Willi Syndrome. Fine mapping of a distal chromosome 1 region influencing opioid addiction traits in a reduced complexity cross. Detecting genetic variation in morphine LD50 in founder strains of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mouse populations. Accumbal E2F3a mediates cocaine behaviors via transcriptome-wide regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing.

Developing direct in vivo genome editing and screening platforms in the mouse brain. Social behavior and anxiety predicts nicotine self-administration in adolescent outbred rats. Genetic risk, nicotine dependence, and the clinical benefit of cessation pharmacotherapy. Massively parallel single-nucleus transcriptomic profiling to identify dysregulated gene regulatory circuitry in opioid addicted human brain.

Heterogeneous functional genomics data integration for addiction biology. Human alcohol brain methylation and biomarker discovery project. Identifying pathogenic gene targets of noncoding GWAS risk loci using gene regulatory circuits. Replication of the pharmacogenetic effect of rs on buprenorphine efficacy in African-Americans with opioid use disorder. Cyfip2 plays an important role in nicotine reward in mice. The CHRNA5 variant rs alters how dopaminergic function changes during progression toward nicotine addiction and during nicotine withdrawa.

Regulatory signatures in primate neurons at cell type resolution. High resolution genetic dissection of complex and quantitative traits in yeast. Transancestral meta-analysis of alcohol dependence identifies novel genetic correlations. Profiling differential expression of miRNA in prefrontal cortices of tobacco smokers vs. Paternal exposure to cigarette smoke toxicants causes adverse developmental, neurological, and behavioral outcomes in the offspring. Pharmacogenetics and Opioid Use Disorder.

Engineering CRISPR constructs as tools for gene-targeted transcriptional reprogramming in mammalian brain to elucidate the causal pathogenic mechanisms of drug abuse. Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the prenatal cortical transcriptome. Large genomewide association study of cannabis dependence: updates from the Substance Use Disorders working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Genome-wide association analysis of amphetamine sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

Chronic, low dosage methamphetamine modifies memory performance compromised by exposure to HIV-1 Tat protein. CYFIP2 mediated control of cocaine induced neuroadaptations in mice. Identifying genetic predictors of perioperative opioid use through a prospective cohort of genotyped and phenotyped surgical patients: The Michigan Genomics Initiative.

Role of dorsal striatal histone deacetylase 5 in incubation of methamphetamine craving. The moderating roles of peer group deviance and parental monitoring on polygenic risk for alcohol use across adolescence. Where is the Missing Heritability Hiding? Lessons From Drosophila.

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Even such capsules have only been used in relatively low numbers, considering the potential population in need of them. The costs associated with the use and administration of ingestible devices are still high, they have reliability issues, governmental regulatory barriers are still problematic, and lack of familiarity of medical doctors and food scientists with the output information from capsule signals is also a significant issue. Ingestible sensing capsules have the capability to impact areas beyond their clinical applications for the prevention, diagnosis, and monitoring of gut disorders and gut related medical supplements.

Smart pills can also provide invaluable information regarding food supplement influence on the individual including the effect of prebiotics and probiotics. This will revolutionize our understanding about food and how food affects our body, and also open the door to new market opportunities that are far larger than clinical diagnostics and monitoring markets. Despite the early predictions that the field of ingestible sensors would experience a revolution after the emergence of the camera capsules in early s, progress in the field has been surprisingly slow.

The field has seen some serious movement after , but as yet not many of the ideas have materialized commercially. The unnecessary barriers by the United States Food and Drug Administration FDA that classify ingestible capsules as class II medical devices have been a significant obstacle, imposing costly processes for obtaining approval for usage.

It is envisaged that advanced ingestible sensing capsules can go beyond standard diagnostic techniques by offering sampling, biopsy, tissue penetration, drug release, and specific actuations on demand. Ultimately, a new paradigm of doctor—patient care can be implemented with remote monitoring and administration. The possibilities are seemingly endless if the regulatory bodies can alter the traditional thinking on diagnostic technologies. Author Information. Kyle J. D: Appl.

Institute of Physics Publishing. Stretchable electronics, i. The potential applications range from fully conformable, stretchable, skin sensors for robotic devices, wearable electronic devices, to flesh-like biodevices.

One of the challenges in the development of stretchable electronics is to retain full functionality under high external strains in stretching. In this paper, we review a few approaches recently developed for stretchable electronics and highlight recent research efforts on multi-directional writing for stretchable, three-dimensional structures.

A review. For at least the past ten years printed electronics has promised to revolutionize the authors' daily life by making cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors available through mass prodn. While passive components, such as conductors, resistors and capacitors, had already been fabricated by printing techniques at industrial scale, printing processes were struggling to meet the requirements for mass-produced electronics and optoelectronics applications despite their great potential.

In the case of logic integrated circuits ICs , which constitute the focus of this Progress Report, the main limitations were represented by the need of suitable functional inks, mainly high-mobility printable semiconductors and low sintering temp. These values were achieved thanks to the design and synthesis of donor-acceptor copolymers, showing limited degree of order when processed in thin films and therefore fostering further studies on the reason leading to such improved charge transport properties.

Among this class of materials, various polymers can show well balanced electrons and holes mobility, therefore being indicated as ambipolar semiconductors, good environmental stability, and a small band-gap, which simplifies the tuning of charge injection. This opened up the possibility of taking advantage of the superior performances offered by complementary CMOS-like logic for the design of digital ICs, easing the scaling down of crit.

Here, the authors review the recent progress in the development of printed ICs based on polymeric semiconductors suitable for large-vol. Particular attention is paid to the strategies proposed in the literature to design and synthesize high mobility polymers and to develop suitable printing tools and techniques to allow for improved patterning capability required for the down-scaling of devices to achieve the operation frequencies needed for applications, such as flexible radiofrequency identification RFID tags, near-field communication NFC devices, ambient electronics, and portable flexible displays.

Fiber-based structures are highly desirable for wearable electronics that are expected to be light-wt. Many fibrous structures were manufd. The advancement of nanotechnol. However, imparting electronic functions to porous, highly deformable and 3-dimensional fiber assemblies and maintaining them during wear represent great challenges from both views of fundamental understanding and practical implementation.

This article attempts to critically review the current state-of-arts with respect to materials, fabrication techniques, and structural design of devices as well as applications of the fiber-based wearable electronic products. This review elaborates the performance requirements of the fiber-based wearable electronic products, esp. Finally, discussions will be presented regarding to limitations of current materials, fabrication techniques, devices concerning manufacturability and performance as well as scientific understanding that must be improved prior to their wide adoption.

American Chemical Society. Wearable sensors have received considerable interest over the past decade owing to their tremendous promise for monitoring the wearers' health, fitness, and their surroundings. However, only limited attention has been directed at developing wearable chem. The development of wearable chem. This perspective reviews key challenges and technol. Size, rigidity, and operational requirements of present chem. Sensor stability and on-body sensor surface regeneration constitute key anal.

Similarly, present wearable power sources are incapable of meeting the requirements for wearable electronics owing to their low energy densities and slow recharging. Several energy-harvesting methodologies have inherent issues, including inconsistent power supply and limited stability. There are also major challenges pertaining to handling and securing the big data generated by wearable sensors. These include achieving high data transfer rates and efficient data mining.

Efforts must also be made toward developing next generation cryptol. The challenges facing the field of wearable chem. The article discusses these challenges and their potential solns. There is a growing demand for flexible and soft electronic devices.

In particular, stretchable, skin-mountable, and wearable strain sensors are needed for several potential applications including personalized health-monitoring, human motion detection, human-machine interfaces, soft robotics, and so forth. This Feature Article presents recent advancements in the development of flexible and stretchable strain sensors.

The article shows that highly stretchable strain sensors are successfully being developed by new mechanisms such as disconnection between overlapped nanomaterials, crack propagation in thin films, and tunneling effect, different from traditional strain sensing mechanisms. Strain sensing performances of recently reported strain sensors are comprehensively studied and discussed, showing that appropriate choice of composite structures as well as suitable interaction between functional nanomaterials and polymers are essential for the high performance strain sensing.

Next, simulation results of piezoresistivity of stretchable strain sensors by computational models are reported. Finally, potential applications of flexible strain sensors are described. This survey reveals that flexible, skin-mountable, and wearable strain sensors have potential in diverse applications while several grand challenges have to be still overcome.

This article reviews recent advances and developments in the field of wearable sensors with emphasis on a subclass of these devices that are able to perform highly-sensitive electrochem. Recent insights into novel fabrication methodologies and electrochem. Wearable electrochem. In this manner, multi-analyte detection can easily be performed, in real time, in order to ascertain the overall physiol.

Of profound importance is the development of an understanding of the impact of mech. We conclude this review with a retrospective outlook of the field and identify potential implications of this new sensing paradigm in the healthcare, fitness, security, and environmental monitoring domains. With continued innovation and detailed attention to core challenges, it is expected that wearable electrochem.

Elsevier Ltd. Wearable sensors have garnered considerable recent interest owing to their tremendous promise for a plethora of applications. Yet the absence of reliable non-invasive chem. A wide range of wearable electrochem. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive electrochem.

Elsevier B. The state of the art and future challenges related to wearable chem. Our attention is focused on the monitoring of biol. The development of such sensing devices is influenced by many factors and is usually addressed through the use of "smart materials" such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, poly ionic liqs.

These are seen as the pivotal steps towards the integration of chem. Jia, Wenzhao; Bandodkar, Amay J. The present work describes the first example of real-time noninvasive lactate sensing in human perspiration during exercise events using a flexible printed temporary-transfer tattoo electrochem. The new skin-worn enzymic biosensor exhibits chem. The device was applied successfully to human subjects for real-time continuous monitoring of sweat lactate dynamics during prolonged cycling exercise.

The resulting temporal lactate profiles reflect changes in the prodn. Such skin-worn metabolite biosensors could lead to useful insights into phys. Bandodkar, Amay J. This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration.

Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's phys. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies.

The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mech. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concn. The favorable anal. Guinovart, Tomas; Bandodkar, Amay J.

Royal Society of Chemistry. The development and anal. The fabrication of this skin-worn sensor, which is based on a screen-printed design, incorporates all-solid-state potentiometric sensor technol. The resulting tattooed potentiometric sensor exhibits a working range between M to 0. Testing under stringent mech. Since the levels of ammonium are related to the breakdown of proteins, the new wearable potentiometric tattoo sensor offers considerable promise for monitoring sport performance or detecting metabolic disorders in healthcare.

Such combination of the epidermal integration, screen-printed technol. Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification RFID sensor bandage patch is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat.

Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

Nature Publishing Group. Wearable sensor technologies are essential to the realization of personalized medicine through continuously monitoring an individual's state of health. Sampling human sweat, which is rich in physiol. Previously reported sweat-based and other non-invasive biosensors either can only monitor a single analyte at a time or lack on-site signal processing circuitry and sensor calibration mechanisms for accurate anal.

Given the complexity of sweat secretion, simultaneous and multiplexed screening of target biomarkers is crit. Here we present a mech. Our work bridges the technol. This application could not have been realized using either of these technologies alone owing to their resp. The wearable system is used to measure the detailed sweat profile of human subjects engaged in prolonged indoor and outdoor phys. This platform enables a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiol.

Homeostasis of ionized calcium in biofluids is crit. Measurement of ionized calcium for clin. Here, the authors demonstrate a wearable electrochem. This platform enables real-time quant. The authors' results show that the wearable sensors have high repeatability and selectivity to the target ions.

Real-time on-body assessment of sweat is also performed, and the authors' results indicate that calcium concn. This platform can be used in noninvasive continuous anal. Gao, Wei; Nyein, Hnin Y. A flexible and wearable microsensor array is described for simultaneous multiplexed monitoring of heavy metals in human body fluids. Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg ions are chosen as target analytes for detection via electrochem.

The oxidn. High selectivity, repeatability, and flexibility of the sensor arrays are presented. Human sweat and urine samples are collected for heavy metal anal. Real-time on-body evaluation of heavy metal e. This platform is anticipated to provide insightful information about an individual's health state such as heavy metal exposure and aid the related clin.

Recently microneedles have been explored for transdermal monitoring of biomarkers with the goal to achieve time-sensitive clin. In this highlight we provide a general overview of recent progress in microneedle-based sensing research, including: a glucose monitoring, b ex vitro microneedle diagnostic systems for general health monitoring with an emphasis on sensor construction, and c in vivo use of microneedle sensors.

The BION Bionic Neuron is a single channel implantable neurostimulator of unique design that can be delivered by injection. The development of the BION injectable neurostimulators exemplifies a challenging, but well posed medical design problem addressed with a successful strategy for prioritizing and resolving the biomedical and technological challenges.

Though some performance requirements required post-evaluation revision, all fundamental goals were realized. A small number of significant design corrections occurred because the device requirements did not include the full scope of environmental demands. The design has spawned a number of variants optimized for diverse biomedical applications, and its clinical applications continue to evolve.

The BION development history demonstrates design successes worth emulating and design pitfalls that may be avoidable for future medical device development teams. This paper serves as an introduction to the BION microstimulator technology and as an analysis of the design process used to develop the early clinical devices. We present the results from a retrospective review of data from patients with groin pain of various etiologies treated using neuromodulation of the dorsal root ganglion DRG.

Patients underwent trial therapy where specifically designed leads were implanted at the target DRGs between T12 and L4. Pain scores were captured on a visual analog scale VAS at baseline and at regular follow-up visits. The average pain reduction was Individual cases showed improvement with a variety of etiologies and pain distributions; a subanalysis of postherniorrhaphy cohort also showed significant improvement.

This technique offers a useful alternative for pain conditions that do not always respond optimally to traditional SCS therapy. Neuromodulation of the DRG provided excellent cross-dermatomal paresthesia coverage, even in cases with patients with discrete pain areas. The therapy can be specific, sustained, and independent of body position.

Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract , Fifth ed. Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference. American Association for the Advancement of Science. The large nos. Although many of these microbes carry out functions that are crit. The mammalian immune system plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis with resident microbial communities, thus ensuring that the mutualistic nature of the host-microbial relation is maintained.

At the same time, resident bacteria profoundly shape mammalian immunity. Here, the authors review advances in the authors' understanding of the interactions between resident microbes and the immune system and the implications of these findings for human health. Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and its assocd. Although the gut microbiota has previously been studied in the context of inflammatory diseases, it has recently become clear that this microbial community has a beneficial role during normal homeostasis, modulating the host's immune system as well as influencing host development and physiol.

The underlying mol. The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clin. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiol. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this.

Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease in the intestine. Minekus, M. Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that det. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization.

Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiol. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes.

This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the prodn. Cancer Res. American Association for Cancer Research. Receiver operating characteristic anal.

Five candidate biomarkers were successfully validated using immunoassays on an independent set of OSCC patients and matched healthy subjects. The discovery of these new targets may lead to a simple clin. Long-term longitudinal studies with large populations of individuals with oral cancer and those who are at high risk of developing oral cancer are needed to validate these potential biomarkers. Li, Yang; St. John, Maie A. Oral fluid saliva meets the demand for noninvasive, accessible, and highly efficient diagnostic medium.

Recent discovery that a large panel of human RNA can be reliably detected in saliva gives rise to a novel clin. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of this new approach by using oral squamous cell carcinoma OSCC as the proof-of-principle disease. RNA isolation was done from the saliva supernatant, followed by two-round linear amplification with T7 RNA polymerase. Human Genome UA microarrays were applied for profiling human salivary transcriptome.

The different gene expression patterns were analyzed by combining a t test comparison and a fold-change anal. The predictive power of these salivary mRNA biomarkers was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve and classification models. Microarray anal. Seven cancer-related mRNA biomarkers that exhibited at least a 3. The utility of salivary transcriptome diagnostics is successfully demonstrated in this study for oral cancer detection. This novel clin. Salivary transcriptome profiling can be applied to evaluate its usefulness for other major disease applications as well as for normal health surveillance.

BioMed Central Ltd. Background: Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40 - nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva.

Methods: We isolated exosomes from amniotic fluid, saliva and urine by differential centrifugation on sucrose gradients. We extd. Results: Exosomes were pos. In sucrose gradients the exosomal fractions contained esRNA that could be isolated with sufficient quantity for further anal.

EsRNAs were protected in exosomes from enzymic degrdn. Amniotic fluid esRNA served as template for the typing of the CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism rs It also allowed sex detn. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that exosomes from body fluids carry esRNAs which can be analyzed and offers access to the transcriptome of the host organism. The exosomal lipid bilayer protects the genetic information from degrdn.

As the isolation of exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostics. Gaster, Richard S. Advances in biosensor technologies for in vitro diagnostics have the potential to transform the practice of medicine. Despite considerable work in the biosensor field, there is still no general sensing platform that can be ubiquitously applied to detect the constellation of biomols.

A major limitation confounding other technologies is signal distortion that occurs in various matrixes due to heterogeneity in ionic strength, pH, temp. Here we present a magnetic nanosensor technol. The matrix insensitivity of our platform to various media demonstrates that our magnetic nanosensor technol. Nature reviews. Eosinophilic esophagitis EoE is a chronic esophageal inflammatory disease of undetermined pathophysiology that results in dense mucosal eosinophilia and esophageal dysfunction.

Adults typically present with dysphagia and food impaction. No pathognomonic features have been identified for EoE and, therefore, its diagnosis must be made on both clinical and histological grounds. Effective treatments rely on steroids and dietary exclusions. Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Kim, Brian S. Eosinophilic esophagitis EoE is a food allergy-assocd. Current management strategies for EoE are nonspecific, and thus there is a need to identify specific immunol. EoE is assocd.

In human subjects with EoE, we obsd. Together, these data suggest that the TSLP-basophil axis contributes to the pathogenesis of EoE and could be therapeutically targeted to treat this disease. Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation.

Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable.

Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. You are What You Eat Nat. In vitro digestion models are widely used to study the structural changes, digestibility, and release of food components under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. However, the results of in vitro digestion models are often different to those found using in vivo models because of the difficulties in accurately simulating the highly complex physicochem. This paper provides an overview of current trends in the development and utilization of in vitro digestion models for foods, as well as information that can be used to develop improved digestion models.

A survey of in vitro digestion models found that the most predominant food samples tested were plants, meats, fish, dairy, and emulsion-based foods. The most frequently used biol. In all the in vitro digestion models surveyed, the digestion temp. With regard to digestion times, 2 h the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine each was predominantly employed. Volume, Composition, and Source of Intestinal Gas Gastroenterology , 59 , — Google Scholar There is no corresponding record for this reference.

A washout technic with intestinal infusion of an inert gas mixture was used to study the relation of gas to functional abdominal symptoms. The volume of gas in the intestinal tract plus or minus 28 ml S. Similarly, there was no difference in the composition or accumulation rate of intestinal gas. However, more gas tended to reflux back into the stomach in patients who complained of abdominal pain during infusion of volumes of gas well tolerated by controls.

Six patients with severe pain during the study had intestinal transit times of gas 40 plus or minus 6 minutes S. Thus, complaints of bloating, pain and gas may result from disordered intestinal motility in combination with an abnormal pain response to gut distention rather than from increased volumes of gas. American Journal of Physiology , 5, Pt. American Physiological Society. Hydrogen sulfide is gaining acceptance as an endogenously produced modulator of tissue function.

The present paradigm of H2S diprotonated, gaseous form of hydrogen sulfide as a tissue messenger consists of H2S being released from the desulfhydration of L-cysteine at a rate sufficient to maintain whole tissue hydrogen sulfide concns.

Utilizing physiol. Analyses of the gas space over rapidly homogenized mouse brain and liver indicated that in situ tissue hydrogen sulfide concns. Human alveolar air measurements indicated negligible free H2S concns. We conclude rapid tissue catabolism of hydrogen sulfide maintains whole tissue brain and liver concns.

For hydrogen sulfide to serve as an endogenously produced messenger, tissue prodn. Dusko; Wang, Jun. To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. This report describes the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly, and characterization of 3.

The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. The minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome are defined and described in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, resp. Sequence data are deposited in the European Short Read Archive with accession no. David, Lawrence A. Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change.

Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii. Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermn.

Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease.

In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles. Butyrate: Implications for Intestinal Function Curr. Purpose of review: Butyrate is physiol. This review examines the recent findings regarding the role and mechanisms by which butyrate regulates intestinal metab. Recent findings: Butyrate is more than a primary nutrient that provides energy to colonocytes and acts as a cellular mediator in those cells through several mechanisms.

One remarkable property of butyrate is its ability to inhibit histone deacetylases, which is assocd. All of these actions make butyrate an important factor for the maintenance of gut health. Summary: From studies published over 30 years, there is no doubt of the important role that butyrate plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. However, despite these effects, clin. Bowel Dis.

Inflammatory bowel diseases , 16 4 , ISSN:. The short-chain fatty acid butyrate, which is mainly produced in the lumen of the large intestine by the fermentation of dietary fibers, plays a major role in the physiology of the colonic mucosa. It is also the major energy source for the colonocyte. Numerous studies have reported that butyrate metabolism is impaired in intestinal inflamed mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease IBD.

The data of butyrate oxidation in normal and inflamed colonic tissues depend on several factors, such as the methodology or the models used or the intensity of inflammation. The putative mechanisms involved in butyrate oxidation impairment may include a defect in beta oxidation, luminal compounds interfering with butyrate metabolism, changes in luminal butyrate concentrations or pH, and a defect in butyrate transport. Recent data show that butyrate deficiency results from the reduction of butyrate uptake by the inflamed mucosa through downregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1.

The concomitant induction of the glucose transporter GLUT1 suggests that inflammation could induce a metabolic switch from butyrate to glucose oxidation. Butyrate transport deficiency is expected to have clinical consequences. Particularly, the reduction of the intracellular availability of butyrate in colonocytes may decrease its protective effects toward cancer in IBD patients. Wong, Julia M. Interest has been recently rekindled in short chain fatty acids SCFAs with the emergence of prebiotics and probiotics aimed at improving colonic and systemic health.

Dietary carbohydrates, specifically resistant starches and dietary fiber, are substrates for fermn. The rate and amt. SCFAs are readily absorbed. Butyrate is the major energy source for colonocytes. Propionate is largely taken up by the liver. Acetate enters the peripheral circulation to be metabolized by peripheral tissues. Specific SCFA may reduce the risk of developing gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.

Acetate is the principal SCFA in the colon, and after absorption it has been shown to increase cholesterol synthesis. However, propionate, a gluconeogenerator, has been shown to inhibit cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, substrates that can decrease the acetate: propionate ratio may reduce serum lipids and possibly cardiovascular disease risk.

Butyrate has been studied for its role in nourishing the colonic mucosa and in the prevention of cancer of the colon, by promoting cell differentiation, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of transformed colonocytes; inhibiting the enzyme histone deacetylase and decreasing the transformation of primary to secondary bile acids as a result of colonic acidification. Therefore, a greater increase in SCFA prodn.

Butyrate irrigation enema has also been suggested in the treatment of colitis. More human studies are now needed, esp. Short-term and long-term human studies are particularly required on SCFAs in relation to markers of cancer risk. These studies will be key to the success of dietary recommendations to maximize colonic disease prevention.

Cell Press. Recent evidence indicates that intestinal gluconeogenesis IGN has beneficial effects on glucose and energy homeostasis. Here, we show that the short-chain fatty acids SCFAs propionate and butyrate, which are generated by fermn. The metabolic benefits on body wt. Thus, the regulation of IGN is necessary for the metabolic benefits assocd.

Among them, butyrate is thought to protect against colon carcinogenesis. However, few studies analyze the effects of butyrate, and other SCFA, on normal epithelial cells and on epithelial regeneration during disease recovery. Since there are controversial in vitro studies, we have explored the effects of SCFA on different biol. In addn. Results: The effect of butyrate on epithelial cells depends on the phenotypic cellular state.

Thus, in nondifferentiated, high proliferative adenocarcinoma cells, butyrate significantly inhibited proliferation while increased differentiation and apoptosis, whereas other SCFA studied did not. However, in normal cells or in differentiated cultures as well as in in vivo studies, the normal proliferation and regeneration of damaged epithelium is not affected by butyrate or SCFA exposure.

Conclusion: Although butyrate could exert antiproliferative effects in tumor progression, its prodn. Inflammatory bowel diseases , 18 12 , ISSN:. Since mucosal healing has become a goal of treatment in IBD we examined how reliably calprotectin levels reflect mucosal disease activity. Correlation analysis was done with Pearson statistics. Correlations were significant with endoscopic disease scores in both CD and in UC. The test appears useful in clinical practice for assessment of endoscopic activity and remission.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association , 5 3 , ISSN:. The impact of C difficile on patients with IBD Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis at the present time is unknown. Diagnosis was confirmed with stool toxin analysis. Demographic information, diagnosis, anatomic location, IBD therapy, antibiotic exposure, hospitalizations, and surgeries were recorded.

Available endoscopic and histologic data were evaluated. Pseudomembranes and fibrinopurulent eruptions were not seen endoscopically or histologically. Univariate and multivariate analysis identified maintenance immunomodulator use and colonic involvement as independent risk factors for C difficile infection in IBD. Increased vigilance regarding this infection in IBD patients with colitis activity is warranted.

Human Microsporidial Infections Clin. Clinical microbiology reviews , 7 4 , ISSN: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. Their host range is extensive, including most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates.

More than microsporidial genera and almost 1, species have now been identified. Five genera Enterocytozoon spp. The clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are diverse and include intestinal, pulmonary, ocular, muscular, and renal disease. Among persons not infected with human immunodeficiency virus, ten cases of microsporidiosis have been documented.

In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, on the other hand, over cases of microsporidiosis have been identified, the majority attributed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an important cause of chronic diarrhea and wasting. Diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves.

Initial detection of microsporidia by light microscopic examination of tissue sections and of more readily obtainable specimens such as stool, duodenal aspirates, urine, sputum, nasal discharge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and conjunctival smears is now becoming routine practice. Definitive species identification is made by using the specific fluorescein-tagged antibody immunofluorescence technique or electron microscopy.

Treatment options are limited, but symptomatic improvement of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection may be achieved with the anthelmintic-antiprotozoal drug albendazole. Preliminary observations suggest that Septata intestinalis and Encephalitozoon infections may be cured with albendazole. Progress is being made with respect to in vitro propagation of microsporidia, which is crucial for developing antimicrosporidial drugs. Furthermore, molecular techniques are being developed for diagnostic purposes, taxonomic classification, and analysis of phylogenetic relationships of microsporidia.

World journal of gastroenterology , 19 24 , ISSN:. The introduction of capsule endoscopy CE in clinical practice increased the interest for the study of the small-bowel. Consequently, in about 10 years, an impressive quantity of literature on indications, diagnostic yield DY , safety profile and technical evolution of CE has been published as well as several reviews.

At present time, there are 5 small-bowel capsule enteroscopy SBCE models in the worldwide market. Head-to-head trials have showed in the great majority of studies comparable results in terms of DY, image quality and completion rate. A 2-L polyethylene glycol-based purge, administered the day before the procedure, is the most widely practiced preparation regimen.

Whether this regimen can be further improved i. Faecal calprotectin has been used in SBCE studies in two settings: in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to evaluate the type and extent of mucosal damage and, more importantly from a clinical point of view, in patients with known or suspected Crohn's disease for assessment of inflammation activity. Although there is still a lot of debate around the exact reasons of SBCE poor performance in various small-bowel segments, it is worth to remember that the capsule progress is non-steerable, hence more rapid in the proximal than in lower segments of the small-bowel.

Capsule aspiration, a relatively unexpected complication, has been reported with increasing frequency. This is probably related with the increase in the mean age of patients undergoing CE. CE video review is a time-consuming procedure. Therefore, several attempts have been made to develop technical software features, in order to make CE video analysis easier and shorter without jeopardizing its accuracy.

Suspected Blood Indicator, QuickView and Fujinon Intelligent Chromo Endoscopy are some of the software tools that have been checked in various clinical studies to date. Wireless capsule endoscopy WCE can be considered an example of disruptive technology since it represents an appealing alternative to traditional diagnostic techniques. This technology enables inspection of the digestive system without discomfort or need for sedation, thus preventing the risks of conventional endoscopy, and has the potential of encouraging patients to undergo gastrointestinal GI tract examinations.

However, currently available clinical products are passive devices whose locomotion is driven by natural peristalsis, with the drawback of failing to capture the images of important GI tract regions, since the doctor is unable to control the capsule's motion and orientation. To address these limitations, many research groups are working to develop active locomotion devices that allow capsule endoscopy to be performed in a totally controlled manner.

This would enable the doctor to steer the capsule towards interesting pathological areas and to accomplish medical tasks. This review presents a research update on WCE and describes the state of the art of the basic modules of current swallowable devices, together with a perspective on WCE potential for screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

Wireless Endoscopy in Will it Still be a Capsule? World J. World journal of gastroenterology , 21 17 , ISSN:. Currently, the major problem of all existing commercial capsule devices is the lack of control of movement. This editorial presents current commercially-available new designs, European projects and delivery capsule and gives an overview of the progress required and progress that will be achieved -according to the opinion of the authors- in the next 5 year leading to Gastrointestinal endoscopy , 69 1 , ISSN:.

All patients had received the same preparation before the CE procedure, including the administration of a prokinetic agent. Cecal incompletion rates were calculated. Risk factors were analyzed by using a binary regression analysis. Previous small-bowel surgery, hospitalization, moderate or poor bowel cleansing, and a gastric transit time longer than 45 minutes were identified as independent risk factors for incomplete CE procedures. World journal of gastroenterology , 14 26 , ISSN: We outline probable and possible developments with wireless capsule endoscopy.

It seems likely that capsule endoscopy will become increasingly effective in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy. This will be attractive to patients especially for cancer or varices detection because capsule endoscopy is painless and is likely to have a higher take up rate compared to conventional colonoscopy and gastroscopy. Double imager capsules with increased frame rates have been used to image the esophagus for Barrett's and esophageal varices.

The image quality is not bad but needs to be improved if it is to become a realistic substitute for flexible upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. An increase in the frame rate, angle of view, depth of field, image numbers, duration of the procedure and improvements in illumination seem likely. Colonic, esophageal and gastric capsules will improve in quality, eroding the supremacy of flexible endoscopy, and become embedded into screening programs.

Therapeutic capsules will emerge with brushing, cytology, fluid aspiration, biopsy and drug delivery capabilities. Electrocautery may also become possible. Diagnostic capsules will integrate physiological measurements with imaging and optical biopsy, and immunologic cancer recognition.

External wireless commands will influence capsule diagnosis and therapy and will increasingly entail the use of real-time imaging. However, it should be noted that speculations about the future of technology in any detail are almost always wrong. Microdevices in Medicine Annu. Polla, Dennis L. Annual Reviews Inc. A review with 68 refs. The application of microelectromech. Three types of biomedical devices are considered, including diagnostic microsystems, surgical microsystems, and therapeutic microsystems.

The opportunities of MEMS miniaturization in these emerging disciplines are considered, with emphasis placed on the importance of the technol. Several case examples in each of these areas are described. Key aspects of MEMS technol. Obscure gastrointestinal GI bleeding, Crohn disease, Celiac disease, small bower tumors, and other disorders that occur in the GI tract have always been challenging to be diagnosed and treated due to the inevitable difficulty in accessing such a complex environment within the human body.

With the invention of wireless capsule endoscope, the next generation of the traditional cabled endoscope, not only a dream has come true for the patients who have experienced a great discomfort and unpleasantness caused by the conventional endoscopic method, but also a new research field has been opened to develop a complete miniature robotic device that is swallowable and has full functions of diagnosis and treatment of the GI diseases.

However, such an ideal device needs to be equipped with a highly accurate localization system to be able to exactly determine the location of lesions in the GI tract and provide essential feedback to an actuation mechanism controlling the device's movement.

This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the localization systems for robotic endoscopic capsules, for which the motivation, challenges, and possible solutions of the proposed localization methods are also discussed. To avoid retention of the capsule used in capsule endoscopy CE , the patency capsule PC , a self-disintegrating sham capsule, is administered prior to CE in patients suspected of small intestinal stenosis.

If the PC is excreted intact within 30 hours of ingestion, the patient can undergo CE without retention. However, if the PC is not excreted within 30 hours, its location must be confirmed as in either the small intestine or the colon because of the potential for small intestinal stenosis in the former case.

It is often difficult to confirm the location of the PC by abdominal radiograph. We report the case of one patient who did not excrete the PC within 30 hours and for whom it was difficult to distinguish whether the PC was in the small intestine or the colon on abdominal series. Abdominal sonography revealed the PC in the colon and subsequent CE was performed without complication.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology , 5 4 , ISSN:. The wireless motility capsule WMC is an ambulatory noninvasive and nonradioactive diagnostic sensor that continuously samples intraluminal pH, temperature, and pressure as it moves through the gastrointestinal GI tract. This review summarizes the data obtained in clinical trials with the WMC and discusses its role in clinical practice. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved the SmartPill GI monitoring system for the evaluation of gastric emptying time in patients with suspected gastroparesis, the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with suspected chronic constipation, and for the characterization of pressure profiles from the antrum and duodenum.

Clinical studies have shown that WMC-measured GI transit times can distinguish patients with motility abnormalities similarly to conventional testing. However, the WMC offers the advantage of providing a full GI-tract profile, enabling the detection of multiregional GI transit abnormalities in patients with suspected upper or lower GI dysmotility.

The WMC also characterizes pressure profiles of the GI tract and impaired pressure profile limits are reported for the antrum and duodenum. In comparison with manometry, interpretations of pressure measurements obtained by the WMC are limited by an inability to detect a peristaltic pressure wave front, and further investigation is required to develop clinical applications.

Clinical studies with the WMC indicated that it should be considered for the evaluation of regional and whole gut transit time in patients with suspected upper or lower dysmotility, particularly if there are concerns about multiregional dysmotility. This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid SUA levels.

The enzyme uricase -modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy BLE transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to std.

The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concn. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications.

Nature communications , 3 , ISSN:. Direct interfacing of nanosensors onto biomaterials could impact health quality monitoring and adaptive threat detection. Graphene is capable of highly sensitive analyte detection due to its nanoscale nature. Here we show that graphene can be printed onto water-soluble silk. This in turn permits intimate biotransfer of graphene nanosensors onto biomaterials, including tooth enamel.

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